Chronology of Human History
   From  4115 BC (Adam & Eve)  To  2000 AD

John 5:39, "Search the scriptures; for ... they ... testify of me." --- Jesus
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"A merry heart doeth good like a medicine:"   (Prov. 17:22)
"... the joy of the LORD is your strength."   (Neh. 8:10)

History Is His-Story

Because History Is Nothing More or Nothing Less Than His-Story, we will be using the abbreviations "BC" and "AD" to identify dates. Many people today are trying to be "Politically Correct" and be considerate of other people's feelings while at the same time Denying The Lord Jesus Christ (Matt. 10:32-33, Mark 8:37, 2 Tim. 1:8). Even though I am considerate of other people's feeling, I believe that they also should be considerate of mine. I believe that Jesus is who He says He is, God Manifested In Human Flesh.

As most people know, "BC" stands for "Before Christ", and "AD" is Latin "Anno Domini" for "In The Year of Our Lord." However, everybody in the world is not a Christian. For a Jew, a Moslem, A Hindu, a Witch, or a Druid to refer to the date as being in the year of "their Lord" when they don't follow Christ, is offensive. Therefore, a new abbreviation had to be made. "CE" stands for "Christian Era" or for the truly anti-Christian "Common Era". "BCE", likewise, stands for "Before" the "Common" or "Christian Era".

"CE" refers to the Same dates as "AD" and "BCE" stands for the Same dates as "BC". The only difference is that "AD" generally goes "Before" the year number and "CE" goes "After" it. e.g. "AD 1998" is the same year as "1998 CE".

One of the main purposes of Genesis is the Reconstruction and Dating of Human History. In order to do this, it will be necessary to carry the dating forward to known dates and to work backward from the known to the un-known. By this means we are able to Verify And Give Authenticity To the Dates In Genesis.

Adam Was The First Man
Eve Was The Mother of All Living

Genesis 1:26-27, "And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them."

Genesis 3:20, "And Adam called his wife. s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living."

1 Corinthians 15:45, "And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit."

4115 BC - 3195 BC --- Adam was created by God 4115 BC and dies in 3195 BC at age of 930 (Gen. 5:5)

3985 BC - 3065 BC --- Seth was born when Adam was 130 years old (Gen. 5:3) and dies at 920 years of age (Gen. 5:8).

3880 BC - 2975 BC --- Enos was born when Seth was 105 years old (Gen. 5:6) and dies at 905 years of age (Gen. 5:11).

3790 BC - 2880 BC --- Cainan was born when Enos was 90 years old (Gen. 5:9) and dies at 910 years of age (Gen. 5:14).

3720 BC - 2825 BC --- Mahalaleel - (Maleleel ) was born when Cainan was 70 years old (Gen. 5:12) and dies at 895 years of age (Gen. 5:17).

3655 BC - 2693 BC --- Jared was born when Mahalaleel was 65 years old (Gen. 5:15) and dies at 962 years of age (Gen. 5:20).

3493 BC - 3128 BC (Promoted) --- Enoch was born when Jared was 162 years old (Gen. 5:18) and was taken by God at the age of 365 (Gen. 5:23-24).

3428 BC - 2459 BC --- Methuselah - (Mathosala) was born when Enoch was 65 years old (Gen. 5:21) and dies at 969 years of age (Gen. 5:27). He died the Same Year the Flood came.

3241 BC - 2464 BC --- Lamech was born when Methuselah was 187 years old (Gen. 5:25) and dies at 777 years of age (Gen. 5: 31). All of the above, including Adam, were Still Livng.

3059 BC - 2109 BC --- Noah - (Noe) was born when Lamech was 182 years old (Gen. 5:28) and dies at 950 years of age (Gen. 9:29). Before the flood, All of the above, except Noah, had died.

A. Noah stood as the Head of The Human Race --- His three sons were the head of the Three Branches.

1. Chapter Ten is the Earliest Ethnological Table of Nations known to man.

2. This is the Earliest Historical Record (Roots) of the Human Race --- the Birth of Nations.

3. There is some Overlapping because some of the three branches Settled In The Same Areas of The World.

a. Descendents of Ham, the sons of Cush, settled in Arabia (V.7).

b. Some of the descendents of Shem --- Joktan and Sheba --- also settled in Arabia (V. 26-28).

4. The Accuracy of this Table of Nations is Indisputable.

B. All Nations and All People have come from this One Source --- Noah and his Three Sons.

1. Acts 17:26, "And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;"

2. Japheth --- The Indo-Europeans.

3. Ham --- The Orientals, Africans, and Canaanites.

4. Shem --- The Middle Eastern people, the line of the Promised Seed.

5. Acts 10:34-35, "Then Peter opened his mouth, and said, Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons: 35 But in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him."

C. No one can deny that there are Definitely Differences Between Races, some being gifted in one way and some in another.

1. However, we must never make the Mistake of identifying differences with Superiority's or Inferiority's.

2. The question is Not One of Worth But of Uniqueness of contribution, each race making a contribution of immeasurable benefit both to itself and to mankind as a whole.

D. Noah had Three Sons --- from whom the Whole World Was Populated.

Ham --- Africa, Egypt

His Descendants Were:

1. Cush --- The name Cush means Ethiopia --- settled in Ethiopia which is in Africa --- Family later split and one group moved eastward in Arabia and the Middle East area of Babylon in Iraq --- the other migrated into the Far East developing the Oriental nations.

a. Seba ---

b. Havilah ---

c. Sabtah ---

d. Raamah ---

(A) Sheba ---

(B) Dedan ---

e. Sabtechah ---

f. ? Nimrod ? --- A descendent of Cush, but we do not know what branch or line he came from (V. 8-12).

(A) Nimrod was the First Tyrant or World Dictator --- who sat out to build the First Empire upon earth.

(1) Nimrod (Marad) means to Rebel, to Revolt --- He rebelled against God ...

(a) In his building of a Secular and Godless empire,

(b) In Enslaving People to build his empire of Babylon,

(c) In trying to build a Tower or Religion, a worldwide religion of false worship, the Tower of Babel.

(2) Nimrod sought to rule over people, to control as many people and lands as he could.

The Jewish historian Josephus says that Nimrod led the people away form God by encouraging them to put their security and happiness in the state or government.

(B) Nimrod's Empire Included Babylon And Assyria.

(1) The Babylonian Empire.

(a) Babel or Babylon was the beginning of Nimrod's empire.

(b) After The Flood, Nimrod and his followers left Ararat and move to Shinar or the area of Babylon.

(c) Babylon becomes a godless city and stands opposed to God's people (cp. Josh. 7:21; Isa. 13:1; 47:1; Dan. 4:30)

Babylon will be utterly destroyed by God (Rev. 18:1-24)

(d) Erech --- A city over 100 miles southeast of Babylon and southwest of modern Baghdad in Iraq --- Ancient name was Uruk --- Modern name is Warka.

(e) Accad or Akkad --- A city in northern Babylonia located on the Euphrates river.

(f) Calneh --- Location is unknown.

(2) The Assyrian Empire.

(a) Nineveh --- A city on the east side of the upper Tigris river --- across the river from the present day city of Mosul.

Remember what God told Jonah about Nineveh (Jonah 1:2).

(b) Rehoboth --- Calah --- Resen --- All three cities were suburbs of Nineveh.

2. Mizraim ---

a. Ludim or Lud --- The Lyddians, possibly located west of Canaan in Asia Minor.

b. Anamim ---

(A) The people of Cyrene who settled west of Egypt.

(B) The man who carried the Cross of Christ was Simon of Cyrene (Matt. 27:32).

c. Lehabim or Lubim --- Libyans who settled west of Egypt in northern Africa.

d. Naphtuhim --- Migrated to Middle Egypt and were later known as the people of Memphis.

e. Pathrusim --- Southern Egypt, the people of Pathros.

f. Casluhim --- Unknown, but most likely settled in northern Egypt around the Delta area.

(A) The Philistines, who were the bitter enemies of Israel, are said to have come from the Casluhim people.

(B) Amos 9:7, and Jer. 47:4 say they came from the island of Caphtor, which is Crete.

(C) Philistim --- Son of Casluhim.

g. Caphtorim ---

(A) Settled on the island of Crete.

(B) Crete was Evangelized by Paul and the church was Pastored by Titus (Titus 1:5).

3. Phut or Put ---

a. These descendents settled in Africa either in Libya or else in the land that is now called Somalia (Ezek. 27:10).

b. They were later enslaved by the Syrians (Nah. 3:9)

4. Canaan ---

a. Settled in the land of Canaan, which later became known as Palestine.

(A) The Canaanites were the people who occupied Palestine or the land of Canaan, when Israel left Egyptian bondage to conquer the land.

(B) The land of Canaan was to be become "The Land of Promise" or "The Promised Land" to the Jews (Gen. 12:7; 15:18; 17:8; 50:24)

b. Canaanites were an Ungodly and utterly Immoral and Unrighteous society (Gen. 19:5, 15; Lev. 18:1-3, 6-10, 23-30)

c. Sodom and Gomorrah were Canaanite cities.

d. The descendents of Canaan:

(A) Sidon ---

(1) A great commercial city on the Mediterranean Sea just north of Canaan.

(2) It was a Phoenecian city just 20 miles north of Tyre. (1 Kings 5:6; 1 Chron. 22:4; Ezek 27:8)

(B) Heth --- Ancestor of the Hittite people.

(1) They originally appeared in Asia Minor and eventually built a great empire that ruled throughout western Asia.

(2) They rules most of Canaan during Abraham's time. (Gen. 23:3-4)

(C) Jebusite ---

(1) These people settled the area of Jerusalem.

(2) They were citizens of Jerusalem when David conquered the city (2 Sam. 5:6-7)

(D) Amorite ---

(1) They settled mostly in the Mountains of Palestine --- however, they became so numerous and spread so far over the land that the Canaanites were sometimes called the Amorites.

(2) They first appeared during the time of Abraham (Gen. 15:18-21).

(3) Joshua defeated the Amorites (Josh. 10:5-7).

(E) Girgasite ---

(1) Location is unknown but they are listed among the nations whose territory was promised to Abraham (Gen. 15:18-21)

(2) Joshua fought against these people (Josh. 24:11).

(F) Hivite ---

(1) Name means "villagers" or "settlers in cities".

(2) They lived in Shechem (Gen. 34:2), Gibeon (Josh. 9:7), and Mt. Hermon (Josh. 11:3).

(G) Arkite --- These people were Phoenecians who settled to the north of Tripolis, just below Lebanon (1 Chron. 1:15-16).

(H) Sinite --- These people were Phoenecians who settled to the north of Tripolis, just below Lebanon (1 Chron. 1:15-16).

(I) Arvadite --- Settler of the island city Arvad, off the coast above Palestine or Canaan, about 100 miles north of Beruit (Ezek. 27:8, 11).

(J) Zemarite --- Settlers of Simyra or Tsumra (same vicinity as the other Phoenician cities above).

(K) Hamathite ---

(1) Settled the northermost territory of Palestine or Canaan.

(2) Founders of Hamath, a large city on the Orantes River (Num. 13:21; 34:8; 1 Kings 8:65).

e. The territory of Canaan is clearly spelled out in V. 18-20, they spread out .....

(A) From Sidon in the north,

(B) To Gerer in the south,

(C) Over to the southern area of the Dead Sea where four cities were located: Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboim.

(D) The Canaanite territory went beyond these cities over to Lasha, which is an unknown city that apparently was along the coast of the Dead Sea.

Japheth --- Greece, Parthia, Russia, northern Europe

His Descendants Were:

1. Gomer --- The first son of Japheth.

a. The descendents of Gomer are identified as the Cimmerians.

b. They spread north and west of the Black Sea, settling in Ancient Galatia, Phyrgia, Bithynia, and the upper region of the Euphrates river in Armenia.

c. These descendents eventually spread westward into Europe and became known as:

(A) The Gauls of France

(B) The Celtics of Briton

(C) The Galacia of Spain

(D) The Germans

(E) The Welsh

(F) The Irish

d. The people of Gomer will Join Forces with those who Stand Against God in the End Time (Ezek. 38:3-6)

e. The Sons of Gomer:

(A) Ashkenaz ---

(1) They settled north of the Euphrates river within the territory of modern Armenia, probably around the area of Ararat (cp. Jer. 51:27)

(2) Later, some of the descendents spread out into into German.

(B) Riphath or Diphath ---

(1) These are listed in the genealogy of 1 Chron. 1:6, and are most likely the ancient Paphalagonians.

(2) Some think they eventually spread to the farthest regions of Europe and that their name gave rise to the name Europe.

(C) Togarmah ---

(1) These people settled above the Euphrates river, within the borders of Armenia and Turkey.

(2) They later migrated into Germany.

(3) The armies of Togarmah joins the armies of God in the great battle of the last days. (Ezek. 38:3-6).

2. Magog ---

a. Magog gave rise to the ancient Scythians and Tartars who lived north of the Black Sea.

b. They migrated and settled much of modern day Russia.

c. They will play a major role during the final days of World History (Ezek. 38-39).

3. Madai ---

a. The Madai are the ancient people of Media who later spread out into Persia.

b. Later some of them moved into India (cp. 2 Kings 17:6, 18:11; Isa. 13:17; 21:2)

c. The Wise Men (Magoi) who visited Jesus as a young baby were from Media (Matt. 2:2).

4. Javan --- The Greek people.

a. The ancient Ionians who settled along the northern and western coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

b. It was the ancient Greeks or Ionians who moved out, explored, and settled various lands and territories, each with its own language (Dan. 8:19-24; Rev. 13:2).

c. The Sons of Javan:

(A) Elishah ---

(1) Either the settlers of Alashia, the island of Cyprus or Sicily and southern Italy.

(2) They were merchants of the very finest blue and purple clothing (Ezek. 27:7).

(B) Tarshish ---

(1) They lived on the ocean --- on the coast of Spain.

(2) Tarshish was the seaport city to which Jonah was fleeing when he was running from the call of God. (Jonah 1:1-3).

(C) Kittim --- Migrated to the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea (cp. Num. 24:24; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6).

(D) Dodanim --- Settled on the Mediterranean island of Rhodes (1 Chron. 1:7).

5. Tubal ---

a. The Tubal are the people who settled in eastern Asia Mior around Turkey.

b. They later moved farther north and east settling in territory now known as the Russian states.

c. Tubial is often associated in Scripture with Meshech --- both will be involved in end time events (Eze. 38:2-3; cp. chapters 38-39)

6. Meshech ---

a. These people were called Mosochi who settled in the lands of Turkey and later migrated north into the Russian states.

b. They founded the city of Moscow.

7. Tiras ---

a. These people were the ancestors of either the Thracians (mentioned in Egyptian literature) or perhaps the Etruscans.

b. These were people of Italy.

Shem - (Sem) - (2556 BC - 1956 BC)

The descendents of Shem spread out into the Middle East --- Arabs, Arameans or Syrians, and Hebrews --- They are the line of The Promised Seed.

His Descendants Were:

1. Elam --- Settled east of Mesopotamia beyond the Tigris river.

a. Mesopotamia is the name for the land between the Euphrates and Tigris river.

b. They later united with Media and formed the great Persian Empire.

c. The Elamites joined forces with several other kingdoms and conquered Sodom and Gomorrah and took Lot, the nephew of Abraham, captive --- Abraham freed Lot (Gen. 14:1-16)

2. Asshur --- The Assyrians who settled in northern Mesopotamia along the upper Tigris river --- Built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth and Calah

3. Arphaxad - (2456 BC - 2118 BC) ---

a. Cainan ---

b. Salah - (Sala) - (2421 BC - 1988 BC) --- Son of Cainan (Luke 3:36).

Eber - (Heber) - (2391 BC - 1927 BC) --- The great grandson of Shem.

We will continue this Chronology through Shem --- it was through Shem that it was prophecied that the Mesisah would come.

c. Lud --- The Lydians of Asia Minor.

d. Aram --- Located northest of Palestine, their land stretched from the Jordan river to what is known as Armenia today 000 It was the land known as Syria.

(A) Uz --- Part of the Arabian Desert --- the homeland of Job (Job 1:1)

(B) Hul --- Nothing is known about.

(C) Gether --- Nothing known about.

(D) Mash --- Either covered southern Armenia or else it was the modern Lebanon.

2556 BC - 1956 BC --- Shem (Sem) was born when Noah was 503 years old (Gen. 5:32, 7:6, 11:10) and dies at 600 years of age (Gen. 11:10-11)

2459 BC --- Flood --- Noah was 600 year old in 2459 BC (1656 years from Adam’s creation) when the flood came (Gen. 7:6).

2456 BC - 2118 BC --- Arphaxad was born when Shem was 100 years old (which was two years after the flood) (Gen. 10) and dies at 438 years of age (Gen. 11:12-13).

Cainan ---

2421 BC - 1988 BC --- Salah - (Sala) was born when Arphaxad (her grandfather) was 35 years of age (Gen. 11:12) and dies at 433 years of age (Gen. 11:14-15) --- Born of Cainan (Luke 3:36)

A. Eber - (Heber) - (2391 BC - 1927 BC) --- The great grandson of Shem.

1. Peleg - (Phalec) - (2357 BC - 2118 BC) --- Name means "Division" or to "Divide".

2 Joktan --- Arabian people.

a. Almodad --- Settled in south Arabia, possibly in the area of Al-murad.

b. Sheleph --- The area of Yeman, probably around Salaf or Sulaf.

c. Hazarmaveth --- An area in south Arabia around Hadramaut.

d. Jerah --- Unknown, but possibly close to a fortress known as Jerahk.

e. Hadoram --- Most likely in Yemen.

f. Uzal --- Probably the name of the ancient Capital of Yemen.

g. Diklah --- Name means "date-palm" --- probably a region where the fruit was plentiful --- perhaps around Dakalah in Yemen.

h. Obal --- Nothing known about

i. Abimael --- Nothing known about.

j. Sheba --- Probably the Sabeans, a people who settled southwest Arabia.

k. Ophir --- Unknown, but may be in southern Arabia on the Persian Gulf.

Solomon's Ships used the port of Ophir for shipping cargo (1 Kings 9:28; 1 Chron. 29:3-4; 2 Chron. 8:17-18; 9:10; Job 22:24; 28:16; Psa. 45:9)

l. Havilah --- Settled on the border of Arabia just north of Yemen (Gen. 2:11-12; 25:16-18; 1 Sam 15:7)

m. Jobab --- Associated with the area of Jahaibab which is located close to modern Mecca.

2391 BC - 1927 BC --- Eber - (Heber) --- The great grandson of Shem --- was born when Salah was 30 years of age (Gen 11:14) and dies at 464 years of age (Gen. 11:16-17).

A Eber was the Father of The Hebrews

B The name "Hebrew" was taken from the Hebrew word "Eber".

C Abraham and the Children of Israel were to come from the line of Eber.

D Peleg - (2357 BC - 2118 BC) --- Name means "Division" or to "Divide".

2357 BC - 2118 BC --- Peleg - (Phalec) was born when Elber was 34 years of age (Gen. 11:16) and dies at 239 years of age (Gen. 11:18-19).

The "Earth Being Divided" refers to:

A. Families of the earth dividing up the land into districts or territories, or

B. Catastrophic volcanic eruption that divided the earth into continents and islands, or

C. The great scattering and division of the human race after the Tower of Babel.

Tower of Babel ---

2327 BC - 2088 BC --- Reu - (Ragau) was born when Peleg was 30 years of age (Gen. 11:18) and dies at 239 years of age (Gen. 11:20-21)

2295 BC - 2065 BC --- Serug - (Saruch) was born when Reu was 32 years of age (Gen. 11:20) and dies at 230 years of age (Gen. 11:22-23).

2265 BC - 2117 BC --- Nahor - (Nachor) was born when Serug was 30 years of age (Gen. 11:22) and dies at 148 years of age (Gen. 11:24-25)

2236 BC - 2031 BC --- Terah - (Thara) was born when Nahor was 29 years of age (Gen. 11:24) and dies at 205 years of age in the land of Haran after leaving the Ur of the Chaldees with Abram, Sarai, and Lot to go into the land of Canaan.

A. Abram --- Wife was Sarai.

B. Nahor --- Wife was Milcah, the daughter of Haran.

C. Haran --- Died before his father Terah.

1. Lot --- Probably born sometime around 2100 B.C.

2. Milcah ---

3. Iscah ---

2166 BC – 1991 BC --- Abram - (Abraham) was born when Terah was 70 years of age (Gen. 11:26) and dies at age of 175 ( Gen. 25:7).

2080 BC - 1943 BC --- Ishmael was born of Abraham's handmaid, Hagar --- (Gen. 16:5).

God had promised to bless Ishmael and make him the Father of A Great Nation (Gen. 17:20, 21:13)--- He, like Jacob, bore Twelve Sons.

1. Nebajoth

2. Kedar

3. Adbeel

4. Mibsam

5. Mishma

6. Dumah

7. Massa

8. Hadar

9. Tema

10. Jetur

11. Naphish

12. Kedemah

These Twelve Sons became "Princes" and "Rulers" or "Sheiks" who ruled over strongholds such as towns, villages, cities, or nations of people.

2069 BC --- Abraham moved to the land of Canaan --- (Gen. 16:3).

2091 BC --- Covenant was given to Abraham at the age of 75 (Gen. 12:1-4), which was 25 years before Isaac was born.

2066 BC – 1886 BC --- Isaac was born when Abraham was 100 years old (Gen. 21:5) and dies at 180 (Gen. 35:21).

2006 BC – xxxx BC --- Esau (Edom) --- Father of the Edomites in Mount Seir.


Adah --- The daughter of Elon the Hittite.


Aholibamah --- The daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite.


Bashemath  (Mahalath) --- Ishmael’s daughter, sister of Nebajoth.  


Timna (Concubine)


2006 BC – 1859 BC --- Jacob

1876 BC --- Jacob - (Israel) --- Moved To Egypt --- during the reign of Sesostris/Senusert III, two years after the famine began in 1878 BC (Gen. 45:6).

Jacob - (Israel) was 130 years of age when he moved to Egypt (Gen. 47:9), and died at age 147 in 1859 BC, just 17 years after he moved to Egypt (Gen. 47:28).

Jacob - (Israel) Had Twelve Sons --- (The Twelve Tribes of Israel):

1. Reuben ---

A. Hanoch ---

B. Phallu ---

C. Hezron ---

D. Carmi ---

2. Simeon ---

A. Jemuel ---

B. Jamin ---

C. Ohad ---

D. Jachin ---

E. Zohar ---

F. Shaul --- Son of a Canaanitish woman.

3. Levi --- Lived 137 years.

A. Gershon ---

1. Libni ---

2. Shimei ---

B. Kohath --- Lived 133 years.

1. Amram (Married Jochebed) --- Lived 137 years.

a. Aaron (Borned 1529 - Married Elisheba) ---

1. Nadab ---

2. Abihu ---

3. Eleazar ---

a. Phinehas ---

1. Ahitub ---

Ahiah ---

2. Ichabod ---

b. Hophni ---

4. Ithamar ---

b. Moses (born 1526 B.C.) ---

c. Miriam (female) ---

2. Izhar ---

a. Koral ---

1. Assir ---

2. Elkanah ---

3. Abiasaph ---

b. Nepheg ---

c. Zicri ---

3. Hebron ---

4. Uzziel ---

a. Mishael ---

b. Elzaphan ---

c. Sithri ---

C. Merari ---

1. Mahli ---

2. Mushi ---

4. Judah (Juda) ---

A. Er --- Shuah was his mother.

1. Tamar --- Firstborn of Er.

2. Er, Judah's firstborn, was wicked in the sight of the Lord; and the Lord slew him. (Gen. 38:7)

B. Onan --- 2nd son of Shuah.

1. Judah commanded Onan to marry his brother's wife and raise up children to his brother.

2. Since they would not be his children, Onan refused by spilling his seed on the ground.

3. This displeased God so He slew him also.

4. Judah asked Tamar to remain a widow at her father's house until his othr son got older enough to marry her.

a. Getting tired of waiting, Tamar heard that Judah was going to Timnath to shear his sheep.

b. She took off her widow's garments and sat on the side of the road as a harlot.

c. Judah came into her and twins were born of her.

Pharez and Zarah

C. Shelah --- 3rd son of Shuah.

D. Pharez - (Phares) --- (Mother was Tamar Judah's daugher-in-law)

1. Hezron - (Esrom) ---

a. His descendants were --- Aram --- Aminadab --- Narson --- Salmon --- Booz --- Obed --- Jesse --- David ...

b. We will continue this genealogy from Two Sons of David.

c. With David, the lineage was divided --- one for Joseph --- the other for Mary.

2. Hamul ---

E. Zarah --- (Mother was Tamar Judah's daugher-in-law)

1. Zimri ---

2. Ethan ---

3. Heman ---

4. Calcol ---

5. Darda ---

5. Dan ---

Hushim ---

6. Naphtali ---

A. Jahzeel ---

B. Guni ---

C. Jezer ---

D. Shillem ---

7. Gad ---

A. Ziphion ---

B. Haggi ---

C. Shuni ---

D. Ezbon ---

E. Eri ---

F. Arodi ---

G. Areli ---

8. Asher ---

A. Jimnah ---

B. Ishuah ---

C. Isui ---

D. Beriah ---

1. Heber ---

2. Malchiel ---

E. Serah --- (Daughter)

9. Issachar ---

A. Tola ---

B. Phuvah ---

C. Job ---

D. Shimron ---

10. Zebulun ---

A. Sered ---

B. Elon ---

C. Jahleel ---

11. Joseph ---

A. Manasseh ---

B. Ephraim ---

12. Benjamin ---

A. Belah ---

B. Becher ---

C. Ashbel ---

D. Gera ---

E. Naaman ---

F. Ehi ---

G. Rosh ---

H. Muppim ---

I. Huppim ---

J. Ard ---

13. Dinah (daughter) ---

14 - 33 - Were All Daughters.

xxxx BC – xxxx BC  --- Abraham also had Six Sons by Keturah:

It is likely that all these people, together with the descendants of Ishmael, Lot, and Esau; and in some cases, Ham, gradually merged into what is modern-day Arabic peoples.

1. Zimran

2. Jokshan --- The sons of Jokshan are occasionally mentioned in the Bible.

a. Sheba

b. Dedan

(1) Asshurim

(2) Letushim

(3) Leummim

3. Medan

4. Midian --- The sons of Midian (the Medianites) are often mentioned in the Bible as the Enemies of Israel.

a. Ephah

b. Epher

c. Hanoch

d. Abida

e. Eldaah

5. Ishbak

6. Shuah

1915 BC – 1805 BC --- Joseph was Sold To Egypt at age of 17 in 1898 BC (Gen. 37:2, 28).

Joseph was Released From Prison and made second in command at age of 30 in 1885 BC (Gen. 41:46).

1876 BC - 1446 BC --- Egyptian Captivity --- Israel Lived In Egypt for 430 years to the very day (Exo. 12:41-42).

1 Kings 6:1 indicates the Exodus occurred 480 years prior to the 4th year of Solomon’s reign. His 4th year was 966, placing the Exodus at 1446 BC.

Egyptian Dynasties: --- 2920 BC - 332 AD

Early Dynastic Period --- 2920 BC - 2770 BC

1st Dynasty --- 2920 BC - 2770 BC

Little actual history is known of the pharaohs of the early dynasties.

Menes (Aha)
     Aha is known for millions of people as King Menes of Memphis. He was the founding king of the 1st Dynasty, and was the first king to unify Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom. Menes founded the city of Memphis, and chose as its location an island in the Nile, so that it would be easy to defend.His chief wife was Queen Berenib, though she was not the mother of his heir, King Djer, and his mother was Neithotepe. Menes' tomb resides at Saqqara, the famed necropolis of Memphis. He died at the age of Sixty Three.

Iti (Neithhotep)

     Djer was the son of Aha and one of his lesser ranked wives, a woman named Hent. Djer built a palace at Memphis where he ruled Egypt from for fifty years. Djer's wife was Queen Herneith. He was buried in a mortuary complex which is called the True Grave of the god Osiris.

     Wadj, the third king of the1st Egyptian Dynasty. His stela is displayed at the Louvre in Paris. It is made of limestone carved by the sculptor Serekh. The stela was discovered near the ancient city of Abydos where Wadj's mortuary complex is located. His wife was Queen Mereneith, who acted as mentor and advisor for his successor, King Den.

Den (Udimu)
     Den came to power in Egypt as an infant, Queen Merenith was appointed as his political advisor, which essentially meant that she ruled Egypt until he was capable of doing so himself. Den ruled Egypt for almost fifty years. He was an energetic and athletic person, and was artistic as well. His mortuary complex was built in the ancient city of Abydos, but his body was buried at Saqqara

     Anendjib kept Memphis as his capitol city throughout his 14 years of rule. Anedjib's crown carried the symbols of both Upper and Lower Egypt, a representation of the unification of the country under his power. His wife, Queen Betrest, was the mother of King Semerkhet, who was his successor. The queen provided Anedjib with legitimacy and power since she was a descendant from the Memphite royal line.

     Semerkhet was the son of King Adjib and Queen Betrest, and for unknown reasons, only ruled for eight years.


2nd Dynasty --- 2770 BC - 2650 BC

     Hetepsekhemwy's name is a reference to the gods Horus and Seth "The Two Mighty Ones at Rest". He ruled Ancient Egypt for more than thirty five years.

     Reneb controlled Egypt after a coup to overthrow his brother. His royal seals were discovered at Saqqara and near Hermopolis.

     Ninetjer ruled ancient Egypt for almost 40 years and he was famous for his festivals and marvelous temples.

     Peribsen was not the legitimate heir of Nintejer. Many historians believe that the king was an outsider who instigated coup against King Nintejer.

     A statue of Khasekhemwy resides in the Cairo Museum. This was the first use of hard stone work during this period.

Old Kingdom --- 2650 BC - 2152 BC

The pyramids of Giza and Dahshur are built during this period.

3rd Dynasty --- 2650 BC - 2575 BC

Sanakhte (Nebka) --- 2650 BC - 2630 BC
Netjerykhet (Djoser) --- 2630 BC - 2611 BC
Sekhemkhet (Djoser Teti) --- 2611 BC - 2603 BC
Khaba --- 2603 BC - 2599 BC
Huni --- 2599 BC - 2575 BC

4th Dynasty --- 2575 BC - 2467 BC

Snofru --- 2575 BC - 2551 BC
Khufu (Cheops) --- 2551 BC - 2528 BC
Radjedef --- 2528 BC - 2520 BC
Khafre (Chephren) --- 2520 BC - 2494 BC
Menkaure (Mycerinus) --- 2490 BC - 2472 BC
Shepseskaf --- 2472 BC - 2467 BC

5th Dynasty --- 2465 BC - 2323 BC

Userkaf --- 2465 BC - 2458 BC
Noah's Flood took place in 2459 B.C.
Sahure --- 2458 BC - 2446 BC
Neferirkare Kakai --- 2446 BC - 2426 BC
Shepseskare Ini --- 2426 BC - 2419 BC
Raneferef --- 2419 BC - 2416 BC
Niuserre Izi --- 2416 BC - 2392 BC
Menkauhor --- 2396 BC - 2388 BC
Djedkare Izezi --- 2388 BC - 2356 BC
Wenis --- 2356 BC - 2323 BC

6th Dynasty --- 2323 BC - 2152 BC

Teti --- 2323 BC - 2291 BC
Pepy I (Meryre) --- 2289 BC - 2255 BC
Merenre Nemtyemzaf --- 2255 BC - 2246 BC
Pepy II (Neferkare) --- 2246 BC - 2152 BC

First Intermediate Period --- 2150 BC - 1986 BC

During this period there was a breakdown of centralized government, with many kings having overlapping reigns. Montuhotep established order from his capital at Thebes.

7th and 8th Dynasties --- 2150 BC - 2135 BC

Neferkare II
Neferkare III
Djedkare II
Neferkare IV
Menkamin I
Neferkare V
Neferkare VI
Neferkamin II
Ibi I
Neferirkare II

Attested Kings about whom nothing more is known


9th and 10th Dynasties --- 2135 BC - 2074 BC

Covenant was given to Abraham by God in 2091 B.C.
several kings named Kheti
Meri-Hathor (?)

11th Dynasty --- 2074 BC - 1986 BC

Inyotef I (Sehertawy) --- 2074 BC - 2064 BC
Inyotef II (Wahankh) --- 2064 BC - 2015 BC
Inyotef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer) --- 2015 BC - 2007 BC
Montuhotep II --- 2007 BC - 1986 BC

Middle Kingdom --- 1986 BC - 1759 BC

11th Dynasty --- 1986 BC - 1937 BC

Montuhotep II (Nebhepetre) --- 1986 BC - 1956 BC
Montuhotep III (Sankhkare) --- 1956 BC - 1944 BC
Montuhotep IV (Nebtawyre) --- 1944 BC - 1937 BC

12th Dynasty --- 1937 BC - 1759 BC

Amenemhet I (Sehetepibre) --- 1937 BC - 1908 BC
Senwosret I (Kheperkare) --- 1917 BC - 1872 BC
Joseph was sold to Egypt in 1898 B.C. at the age of 17.
Jacob moved to Egypt in 1876 BC.
Amenemhet II (Nubkaure) --- 1875 BC - 1840 BC
Senwosret II (Khakheperre) --- 1842 BC - 1836 BC
Senwosret III (Khakaure) --- 1836 BC - 1817 BC
Amenemhet III (Nimaatre) --- 1817 BC - 1772 BC
Amenemhet IV (Maakherure) --- 1772 BC - 1763 BC
Neferusobek (Sobekkare) --- 1763 BC - 1759 BC

Second Intermediate Period --- 1783 BC - 1539 BC

13th Dynasty --- 1783 -

Wegaf --- 1783 BC-1779 BC
Amenemhat V
Sehetepibre I
Amenemhat VI
Sehetepibre II
Sobekhotep I
Hor I
Amenemhat VII
Sobekhotep II
Antef IV
Sobekhotep III
Neferhotep I --- 1696 BC - 1686 BC
Sihathor --- 1685 BC - 1685 BC
Sobekhotep IV --- 1685 BC - 1678 BC
Sobekhotep V --- 1678 BC - 1674 BC
Iaib --- 1674 BC - 1664 BC
Ay --- 1664 - 1641 BC
Ini I
Sobekhotep VI
Dedumes I
Ibi II
Hor II
Sekhanre I

14th Dynasty --- 

Ankhkare, ...

15th Dynasty --- 

Apachnan (Khian)
Apophis (Auserre Apepi)

16th Dynasty --- 

Pepi III
Nikare II
Amu, ...

17th Dynasty --- 

Antef V
Sobekemzaf I
Mentuhotep VII
Nebirau I
Nebirau II
Sobekemzaf II
Antef VI
Antef VII
Tao I (Senakhtenre)
Tao II (Sekenenre)
Kamose (Wadjkheperre)

New Kingdom --- 1539 BC - 1069 BC

18th Dynasty --- 1539 BC - 1295 BC

Ahmose (Nebpehtyre) --- 1539 BC - 1514 BC
Moses was born in 1526 BC.
Amenhotep I (Djeserkare) --- 1514 BC - 1493 BC
Thutmose I (Akheperkare) --- 1493 BC - 1481 BC
Thutmose II (Akheperenre) --- 1481 BC - 1479 BC
Hatshepsut (Maatkare) --- 1473 BC - 1458 BC
Thutmose III (Menkheperre) --- 1479 BC - 1425 BC
The Exodus took place in 1446 BC while Thutmose III was in power.
Amenhotep II (Akheperure) --- 1427 BC - 1392 BC
Thutmose IV (Menkheperure) --- 1392 BC - 1382 BC
Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre) --- 1382 BC - 1344 BC
Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten --- 1352 BC - 1336 BC
Neferneferuaten --- 1341 BC - 1337 BC
Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure) --- 1337 BC - 1336 BC
Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure) --- 1336 BC - 1327 BC
Ay (Kheperkheperure) --- 1327 BC - 1323 BC
Horemheb (Djeserkheperure) --- 1323 BC - 1295 BC

19th Dynasty --- 1295 - 1186 BC

Ramesses I (Menpehtyre) --- 1295 BC - 1294 BC
Seti I (Menmaatre) --- 1394 BC - 1279 BC

Ramesses II (Usermaatresetepenre) --- 1279 BC - 1213 BC
     This is the Pharaol that the movie "The Ten Commandments" protrayed at being the one with whom Moses did battle before the Exodus. In fact the Exodus took place 167 years earlier.
     The son of Seti I and Queen Tuya was called Ramesses the Great, he lived to be 96 years old, had 200 wives and concubines, 96 sons and 60 daughters. Ramesses II outlived the first thirteen of his heirs.
     When Seti I died in 1290 B.C., Ramesses assumed the throne and began a series of wars against the Syrians. The famous Battle of Kadesh is inscribed on the walls of Ramesses temple.
     Ramesses' building accomplishments are two temples at Abu Simbel, the hypostyle hall at Karnak, a mortuary complex at Abydos, the Colossus of Ramesses at Memphis, a vast tomb at Thebes, additions at the Luxor Temple, and the famous Ramesseum. Among Ramesses' wives were Nefertari, Queen Istnofret, his two daughters, Binthanath and Merytamon, and the Hittite princess, Maathornefrure.

Merenptah (Baenrehotephirmaat) --- 1213 BC - 1203 BC
Amenmesse (Menmire) --- 1203 BC - 1200 BC
Seti II (Userkheperuresetepenre) --- 1200 BC - 1194 BC
Siptah (Akhenresetepenre) --- 1194 BC - 1188 BC
Tausert (Sitremeritamun) --- 1188 BC - 1186 BC

20th Dynasty --- 1186 - 1069 BC

Setakht (Userkhauremeryamun) --- 1186 BC - 1184 BC
Ramesses III (Usermaatremeryamun) --- 1184 BC - 1153 BC
Ramesses IV (Hekamaatresetepenamun) --- 1153 BC - 1147 BC
Ramesses V (Usermaatresekheperenre) --- 1147 BC - 1143 BC
Ramesses VI (Nebmaatremeryamun) --- 1143 BC - 1136 BC
Ramesses VII (Usermaatresetepenre) --- 1136 BC - 1129 BC
Ramesses VIII (Usermaatreakhenamun) --- 1129 BC - 1126 BC
Ramesses IX (Neferkaresetepenre) --- 1126 BC - 1108 BC
Ramesses X (Khepermaatresetepenre) --- 1108 BC - 1099 BC
Ramesses XI (Menmaatresetepenptah) --- 1099 BC - 1069 BC

Third Intermediate Period --- 1070 - 715

The capital moves from Tanis to Libyan, to Nubia, to Thebes, to SAIS, and then back to Nubia and Thebes.

21st Dynasty --- 1070 BC - 945 BC

Smedes --- 1070 BC - 1044 BC
Amenemnisu --- 1040 BC
Psusennes I --- 1040 BC - 992 BC
Amenope --- 993 - 984
Osochor --- 984 - 978
Siamun --- 978 - 959
Psusennes II --- 959 - 945

22nd Dynasty --- 945 BC - 712 BC

Shoshenq I --- 945 BC - 924 BC
Osorkon I --- 924 BC - 909 BC
Takelot --- 909 BC - ?
Shoshenq II --- ? - 883 BC
Osorkon II --- 883 BC - 855 BC
Takelot II --- 860 BC - 835 BC
Shoshenq III --- 835 BC - 783 BC
Pami --- 783 BC - 773 BC
Shoshenq IV --- 773 BC - 735 BC
Osorkon IV --- 735 BC - 712 BC

23rd Dynasty --- 828 BC - 725 BC

Pedubaste I --- 828 BC - 803 BC
Osorkon IV --- 777 BC - 749 BC
Peftjauwybast --- 740 BC - 725 BC

24th Dynasty --- 725 BC - 715 BC

Shepsesre Tefnakht I --- 725 BC - 720 BC
Wahkare Bakenranef --- 720 BC - 715 BC

Late Kingdom --- 712 BC - 343 BC

25th Dynasty --- 712 BC - 657 BC

Shebaka --- 712 BC - 698 BC
Shebitku --- 698 BC - 690 BC
Taharqa --- 690 BC - 664 BC
Tantamani --- 664 BC - 657 BC

26th Dynasty --- 664 BC - 525 BC

Psammetichus I (Psam-tik) --- 664 BC - 610 BC
Psammetichus II --- 610 BC - 595 BC
Apries --- 589 BC - 570 BC
Amasis --- 570 BC - 526 BC
Psammetichus III --- 526 BC - 525 BC

27th Dynasty --- 525 BC - 404 BC

Cambyses --- 525 BC - 522 BC
Darius I --- 521 BC - 486 BC
Xerxes I --- 486 BC - 466 BC
Artaxerxes I --- 465 BC - 424 BC
Darius II --- 424 BC - 404 BC

28th Dynasty --- 404 BC - 399 BC

Amyrtaios --- 404 BC - 399 BC

29th Dynasty --- 399 BC - 380 BC

Nepherites I --- 399 BC - 393 BC
Psammuthis --- 393 BC
Hakoris --- 393 BC - 380 BC
Nepherites II --- 380 BC

30th Dynasty --- 380 BC - 343 BC

The 30th Dynasty contains the last of the Egyptian-born Pharaohs.

Nectanebo I --- 380 BC - 362 BC
Teos --- 365 BC - 360 BC
Nectanebo II --- 360 BC - 343 BC

Second Persian Period --- 343 BC - 332 BC

31st Dynasty --- 343 - 332 BC

The 31st Dynasty in also known as the Second Persian Period.

Ochus (Artaxerxes III) --- 343 BC - 338 BC
Arses --- 338 BC - 336 BC
Darius III Codomannus --- 335 BC - 332 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty --- 323 BC - 30 BC

This period is confusing due to all of the co-regencies. Scholars are not always in agreement on the order of reigns and, in some case, the reigns themselves, from Ptolemy VI through Ptolemy XI. In any event, Egypt's authority and wealth was intact until the death of Cleopatra, at which time, Egypt was overpowered by Rome.

Ptolemy I Soter I --- 323 BC - 285 BC
     Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, the throne of Egypt fell to Ptolemy I, the son of Lagus. He was a veteran soldier and trusted commander who had served Alexander. He started the Ptolemaic Dynasty, which lasted about 300 years.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus --- 282 BC - 246 BC
     Ptolemy II Philadelphus, which means 'Brother/Sister-loving', was married to his full sister Arsinoe II. According to the "Letter of Aristeas", Ptolemy II requested 70 Jewish scholars come from Jerusalem to translate the Pentateuch into a Greek version to be placed into the Great Library collection. He died on January 29, 246 BC.

Ptolemy III Euergeter I --- 246 BC - 222 BC
     Ptolemy III Euergeter I was the son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Arsinoe II and was married to Berenike, his sister. He died in 222 BC.

Ptolemy IV Philopator --- 222 BC - 205 BC
     Philopator means 'Father-loving'. He married his sister Arsinoe. He died in the summer of 204. After his death, two of his most powerful ministers had his wife, Arsinoe III, killed.

Ptolemy V Epiphanes --- 205 BC - 180 BC
     Ptolemy V Epiphanes was the son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III. He became king after his father's death, when he was only five years old. After his father's death, his mother was eager to become the next regent. Ptolemy IV Philopator's two most powerful ministers, Sosibius and Agathocles had Arsinoe murdered. He was married to Cleopatra I. He died at the age of twenty-eight while putting down the last of the insurgents in the Delta.

Ptolemy VI Philometor --- 180 BC - 164 BC & --- 163 BC - 145 BC
     Ptolemy VI Philometor was the son and successor of Ptolemy V Epiphanes, who died when Philometor was a very young boy. His wife-sister was Cleopatra II and his younger brother was Ptolemy VII Euergetes II Physcon. In 164 BC, Philometor left Alexandria and went to Rome where he pretended to be working-class. He waited here until the authorities came to him. Physcon ruled in his absence and it was becoming intolerable. The Alexandrians soon were begging for Philometor to return to Alexandria. In May of 163, the two brothers agreed to split up the rule of Egypt. Physcon would rule the western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor was ruler of Egypt. This lasted until Philometor's death in 145 BC.

Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator --- 145 BC
     Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was the son of Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II. Upon Philometor's death, Cleopatra's son, who was about 16 years old and had been appointed co-ruler by his father earlier that year, became king under his mother's regency. Philopator's uncle Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) wanted to rule and a large number of supporters. He could not get Cleopatra out of the way, so he did the next best thing, he married her. Philopator was killed during the wedding feast.

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II --- 170 BC - 163 BC & --- 145 BC - 116 BC
     Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Physcon) was the younger brother of Ptolemy VI Philometor and the uncle of Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator. He ruled Egypt when Philometor fled Alexandria for Rome. His rule proved to be intolerable and the Alexandrians were begging for Philometor to return. When he did, the two brothers split up rule; Physcon ruling the western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor ruled Egypt. Upon Philometor's death, his son, Philopator, took over the throne with his mother as co-regent. Physcon married Philopator's mother, Cleopatra II, and had Philopator killed at the wedding feast. He returned to Memphis as Pharaoh and expulsed many of the Alexandrians who had sided against him. He also married Cleopatra II's daughter, Cleopatra III. He died on June 26, 116 BC and left his power to Cleopatra III and whichever of her sons she might prefer.

Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II --- 116 BC - 107 BC & --- 88 BC - 80 BC
     Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros) were co-regents during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra III was the niece of Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) and was married to him while her mother was still his official wife. She bore Physcon two sons - Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II (Lathyros) and Ptolemy X Alexander I as well as three daughters, Cleopatra IV, Cleopatra Tryphaena, and Cleopatra Selene. In Physcon's will he left the succession to Cleopatra and to whichever son she preferred. She hated Lathyros, but doted on the younger son Alexander. The Alexandrians wanted Lathyros to be co-regent. He was then governor of Cyprus. Lathyros was brought back to Alexandria to co-rule and Alexander was sent to Cyprus to replace Lathyros. Lathyros was married to Cleopatra IV, his sister, but his mother repudiated the marriage and replaced her with Cleopatra Selene, who was Cleopatra IV's sister. Cleopatra IV went to Cyprus where she tried to raise an army and to marry Ptolemy Alexander. She failed to marry him and moved on to Syria where she used her army as a dowry and married Antiochus IX Cyzicenus who was son of Antiochus Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Cleopatra III finally succeeded in driving out Lathyros in 107 BC when she accused him of trying to murder her. He left behind his wife and his two sons. His brother returned from Cyprus and assumed the throne. Lathyros was in Cyprus during this time.
     After the death of Alexander in a naval battle, Lathyros, who was now in his mid-fifties, was brought back to Alexandria to try to put back together the Ptolemaic empire. He died at the age of 62 and left no legitimate heir to the throne, both of his sons by Cleopatra Selene appear to have died at a young age. His daughter Cleopatra Berenice ruled alone for a while after his death.

Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I --- 107 BC - 88 BC
     Cleopatra III & Alexander I were co-rulers of the Ptolemaic Dynasty after Cleopatra had driven out her older son, Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), after accusing him of trying to kill her. Alexander had been the governor of Cyprus, but after Lathyros had been ousted, he returned to Alexandria to rule with his mother. Not long after he came to rule, his mother soon grew tired of him as well and forced him to flee from Alexandria. In 101, he returned under the pretense of a reconciliation with his mother. He came back and had her assassinated. Alexander was finally driven out of Egypt after selling off Alexander the Great's gold coffin to raise money. He was killed in a naval battle off Cyprus.

Cleopatra Berenice  --- 81 BC - 80 BC
     Cleopatra Berenice was the daughter of Lathyros (Ptolemy IX Soter II) and was married to Ptolemy X Alexander I. After the death of Alexander, she ruled for about one year alone. She was forced to marry her much younger stepson (or possible son). Nineteen days after the marriage took place, Ptolemy XI murdered his new bride.

Ptolemy XI Alexander II --- 80 BC
     Ptolemy XI Alexander II was the son of Ptolemy X Alexander. After the death of his uncle Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), his step-mother (or possibly mother) Cleopatra Berenice ruled for about one year alone. Ptolemy XI was required to marry his step-mother, who was much older than he. The marriage took place and nineteen days later, Ptolemy XI killed his new bride. He was then lynched by the Alexandrian mob, with whom his wife had been very popular.

Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos --- 80 BC - 58 BC & --- 55 BC - 51 BC
     Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos was the illegitimate son of Lathyros (Ptolemy IX Soter II). His younger brother became governor of Cyprus and Ptolemy XII came to Alexandria to rule after the death of Ptolemy XI Alexander II. He was often referred to by his subjects as the Bastard or the Flute Player (Auletes). He referred to himself as 'Theos Philopator Philadelphos Neos Dionysos'. It is only in the history books that he is referred to as Ptolemy XII. He was married to his sister-wife, Cleopatra V Tryphaena and was the father of the famous Cleopatra VII, who grew up to be the last of the Ptolemies.
He was driven out of Alexandria in 58 BC. In his absence, he left as co-regents his wife-sister Cleopatra V Tryphaena and their eldest daughter, Berenice IV. Cleopatra Tryphaena died about a year later and Berenice IV ruled as sole regent. She was made to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes but after a short time, she had him strangled. Auletes returned to the throne in 55 BC and ruled until his death in 51 BC. On his death, he left his regency to his daughter Cleopatra VII.

Berenice IV --- 58 BC - 55 BC
     Berenice IV was the oldest daughter of Auletes (Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos) and ruled for three years during his exile. At the beginning of his exile, she co-ruled with her mother Cleopatra V Tryphaena until the mother's death about a year later. Berenice ruled as sole regent and was expected to marry. The one selected was Seleucus Kybiosaktes. After a few days, she had her husband strangled. The second man she chose was Archelaus. Her father finally paid out enough money and was brought back to Egypt. Archelaus' army was defeated and Pompey suggested that Auletes be returned to the throne. One of his first acts was to have his daughter, Berenice, executed.

Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XIII --- 51 BC - 47 BC
Cleopatra & Ptolemy XIV --- 47 BC - 44 BC
Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XV Cesarion --- 44 BC - 30 BC
     In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV.

1526 BC - 1406 BC --- Moses was born in 1526 BC and lived in exile in Midian 40 years (from 1486 BC – 1446 BC) (Exo. 2:23, Acts 7:3).

The only pharaohs who ruled 40 years or more were Thutmose III (1504 BC – 1450 BC) and Rameses II (1290 – 1224).

This means that Thutmose III was the pharaoh who Moses dealt with, Not Rameses II as portrayed in the movie "The Ten Commandments" and other popular media.

1446 BC - 1406 BC --- The Wilderness Wanderings --- Joshua’s leadership began in 1406 BC.

The Law was given 3 Months After The Exodus (Exo. 19:1).

Galatians 3:17, "And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect."

A Word For Word Translation of The Greek Text Reads:

Gal. 3:17, "This now I say, {the} covenant confirmed beforehand by God to Christ, the after years four hundred and thirty which took place law does not annul so as to make of no effect the promise."

The Covenant was given to Abraham in 2091 when Abraham was 75 years of age. This was 215 years before Jacob went down into Egypt in 1876 BC and 645 years before the law was given in 1446 BC.

Israel Lived In Egypt 430 Years To The Very Day.

Gal. 3:17, must be saying that the Law was given After The 430 Years of Captivity, not exactly 430 from the date the covenant was given to Abraham.

1406 --- Joshua led Israel Across The Jordan River into the Promised Land in 1406 BC.

1406 BC – 1050 BC --- Judges And The Conquest

List of Judges:

1050 BC - 931 BC --- United Kingdom --- (the start of Saul’s Reign)

Saul reign from 1050 BC – 1010 BC.

David started his reign in 1010 BC (After Saul’s 40 years as King).

Solomon’s reign was from 971 BC – 931 BC. The temple was begun during the 4th full year (actually into the fifth) of Solomon’s reign. (1 Kings 11:42)

960 BC --- First Temple was completed.

931 BC --- Death of Solomon, A Tragic Civil War Split Israel Into Two Opposing Kingdoms, The North and the South.

The Northern Kingdom began in 931 BC and lasted 210 years. It consisted of Ten Tribes and its capital later became Samaria. It was captured by the Assyrians in 721 BC and never returned from captivity.

The Southern Kingdom began in 931 BC and lasted 326 years. It consisted of Two Tribes (Judah and Benjamin) and its capital remained Jerusalem. It was captured by the Babylonians in 606 BC. There were three separate returns from captivity.

931 BC - 721 BC --- Northern Kingdom --- Kings:

931 BC - 909 BC --- Jeroboam - 1 Kings 11:26 – 14:20, 2 Chron. 9:29 – 13:22

1.Jeroboam served as a cabinet member under Solomon, but fled to Egypt to escape the king’s wrath.

2. He led the revolt of the ten tribes at Shechem.

3. His false religion caused Israel to sin.

4. His pagan altar was destroyed, his army paralyzed, and his son stricken by God  due to his sin.

5. He was defeated in battle by Abijam, the second king of the south.

6. He was stricken with a plague from God and died.

910 BC - 908 BC --- Nadab - 1 Kings 15:25-28

1. Nadab was the son of Jeroboam.

2. He was assassinated by a rebel named Baasha.

909 BC - 885 BC --- Baasha - 1 Kings 15:27 – 16:7, 2 Chron. 16:1-6

1. He killed Nadab and thus fulfilled Ahijah the prophet’s prediction. Compare 1 Kings 14:4 with 15:29

2. He fought with Asa (third king of the south) and built a wall to cut off trade to Jerusalem.

885 BC - 883 BC --- Elah - 1 Kings 16:6-14

1. He was the son of Baasha.

2. While drunk, he was assassinated by a soldier rebel.

885 BC (duration of 7 days) --- Zimri - 1 Kings 16:9-20

1. He fulfilled prophecy by slaughtering Baasha’s seed.

2. He was trapped by rebel soldiers in his own palace, resulting in a fiery suicidal death.

885 BC - 873 BC --- Omri - 1 Kings 16:15-28

1. He made Samaria the northern capital.

2. He was the most powerful king up to his time.

3. He arranged the marriage of his son Ahab to Jezebal.

874 BC - 852 BC --- Ahab - 1 Kings 16:28 – 22:40, 2 Chron. 18:1-34

1. He married Jezebel.

2. His Baal-worshiping practices caused a great famine to fall upon the land.

3. He was allowed to defeat the Syrians on two occasions to prove a point.

4. He tricked godly King Jehoshaphat (fourth king of Judah) into a twofold compromise --- matrimonial and military.

5. His death for his many sins was predicted by three prophets (1 Kings 20:42, 21:19, 22:17, 28)

6. The death of Jezebel, his wife, was also predicted by Elijah.

7. He experienced a brief (but temporary) fox-hole type conversion (1 Kings 21:29)

8. He was killed in a battle with Syria.

853 BC - 851 BC --- Ahaziah - 1 Kings 22:40 – 2 Kings 1:18, 2 Chron. 20:35-37

1. He was the oldest son of Ahab and Jezebel.

2. He persuaded Jehoshaphat to enter into a ship-building enterprise with him at Ezion-Geber.

3. He suffered a severe fall (which proved fatal) in his palace in Samaria.

4. He turned to the pagan god Baal-Zebub for healing.

5. He was rebuked for this by Elijah, whom he unsuccessfully attempted to arrest.

852 BC - 840 BC --- Jehoram - 2 Kings 3:1 – 9:25, 2 Chron. 22:5-7

1. He was the youngest son of Ahab and Jezebel.

2. He persuaded Jehoshaphat to ally with him against Syria.

3. Elisha the prophet performed a miracle (for Jehoshaphat’s sake) which won the battle.

4. Elisha later helped Jehoram by warning him of several planned Syrian ambushes.

5. Elisha would, however, prevent him from slaughtering some supernaturally blinded Syrian troops.

6. He was on the throne when Naaman came to be healed of leprosy.

7. He was on the throne when God used four lepers to save Samaria from starvation.

8. He was finally murdered by Jehu in the Valley of Jezreel.

841 BC - 813 BC --- Jehu - 2 Kings 9:1 – 10:36, 2 Chron. 22:7-12

1. He was anointed by a messenger from Elisha.

2. He was known for his bloodletting. He Executed:

Judah’s King Ahaziah (not to be confused with Ahab’s oldest son),
Grandson of Jehoshaphat,
The northern king Jehoram,
Ahab’s seventy sons,
Relatives, and friends,
Forty-two royal princes of Judah,
The Baal-worshipers

814 BC - 797 BC --- Jehoahaz - 2 Kings 13:1-9

1. He was the son of Jehu.

2. He saw his army almost wiped out by the Syrians.

3. He experienced a brief period of remorse over his sins, but apparently not genuine repentance.

798 BC - 782 BC --- Jehoash - 2 Kings 13:10 – 14:16, 2 Chron. 25:17-24

1. He visited Elisha on his deathbed.

2. He defeated Amaziah (sixth king of Judah) on the battlefield.

3. He related one of the two Old Testament fables to ridicule the arrogant claims of Amaziah.

4. He plundered Jeruslaaem, taking many hostages and much wealth.

793BC - 752 BC --- Jeroboam II - 2 Kings 14:23-29

1. He ruled longer than any other northern king.

2. He was one of the most powerful kings of the north.

3. He recovered much of Israel’s lost territory.

753 BC (6 months) --- Zechariah - 2 Kings 14:29 – 15:12

1. He was the great-great-grandson of Jehu, and fourth ruler in his dynasty.

2. He was murdered by a rebel named Shallum, thus fulfilling God’s prophecy against Jehu. (2 Kings 10:30, 14:29, 15:8-12)

752 BC (1 month) --- Shallum - 2 Kings 15:10-15

He was murdered by a cruel solder named Menahem.

752 BC - 742 BC --- Menahem - 2 Kings 15:14-22

1. He was one of Israel’s most brutal dictators.

2. He brought off Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser with a two-million-dollar bribe.

740 BC - 732 BC --- Pekahiah - 2 Kings 15:22-26

1. He was the son of Menahem.

2. He was killed by his army commander, Pekah.

740 BC - 732 BC --- Pekah - 2 Kings 15:27-31, 2 Chron. 28:5-8

1. He reign 20 years, but only eight years are in view here (740–732). It is thought that the first twelve years (752-740) were shared by a co-regency arrangement with both Menahem and Pekahiah.

2. He joined Syria in an unsuccessful attempt to punish Judah for their refusal to team up against Assyria.

3. He saw Assyria capture some of Israel’s northern and eastern cities.

4. He was assassinated by Hoshea.

732 BC - 721 BC --- Hoshea - 2 Kings 15:30 – 17:6

1. He was Israel’s final king.

2. He joined with Egypt in rebelling against Assyria, for which he was imprisoned in Assyria.

722 BC - 720 BC --- Assyrian Captivity - Israel Was Crushed By Assyrians.

a. Hoshea’s people were exiled to Assyria --- 2 Kings 17:4-6

b. The Ten Tribes have never been restored to Palestine.

931 BC - 606 BC --- Southern Kingdom --- Kings:

931 BC – 914 BC --- Rehoboam - 1 Kings 11:42 – 14:31, 2 Chron. 9:31 – 12:16

1. He was the son of Solomon.

2.His stupidity and tactlessness sparked the civil war.

3. He had eighteen wives and sixty concubines.

4. His favorite wife was Maachah, the evil daughter of Absalom.

914 BC – 911 BC --- Abijam - 1 Kings 14:31 – 15:8, 2 Chron. 13:1-22

1. He defeated (by supernatural intervention) the northern king, Jeroboam on the battlefield.

2. In spite of God’s help, he degenerated into a wicked king.

911 BC – 870 BC --- Asa - 1 Kings 15:8-14, 2 Chron. 14:1 – 16:14

1. He was Judah’s first saved king.

2. He led Judah in a revival.

3. He was a great builder.

4. He saw God answer his prayer by delivering Jerusalem from a massive Ethiopian attack (2 Chron. 14:11).

5. He deposed Maacah (his grandmother) because of her idolatry.

6. He later backslid and threw into prison a prophet who had rebuked his sin.

7. He died of a foot disease, which problem he refused to take to God.

873 BC – 848 BC --- Jehoshaphat - 1 Kings 22:41-50, 2 Chron. 17:1 – 20:37

1. He instituted a national religious education program by sending out teachers of the Word of God.

2. He later marred his testimony by compromising with three ungodly northern kings.

3. He appointed a religious director and a civil director, thus establishing the separation of church and state.

4. When Jerusalem was threatened by a massive Moabite invasion, God heard his prayer and supernaturally intervened.

853 BC - 845 BC --- Jeram - 2 Kings 8:16-24, 2 Chron. 21:1-20

1. He married Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel.

2. He began his reign by murdering his six brothers.

3. He received a posthumous message from Elijah predicting judgment upon him because of his wicked and murderous reign.

4. He was attacked and defeated by the Philistines and Arabians.

5. He died of a horrible disease and was unmourned at the funeral.

841 BC --- Ahaziah - 2 Kings 8:24 – 9:29, 2 Chron. 22:1-9

1. He was the son of Joram and Athailah.

2. He was killed by Jehu (tenth northern king).

841 BC - 835 BC --- Athaliah - 2 Kings 11:1-20, 2 Chron. 22:2 – 23:21

1.At the death of Ahaziah, her son, she took over the throne of Judah, slaughtering all the royal seed but one (Joash) who was hidden from her.

2. After a rule of six years, she herself was executed.

835 BC - 795 BC --- Joash - 2 Kings 11:1 – 12:21, 2 Chron. 22:10 – 24:27

1. He alone had survived Athaliah’s blood purge.

2. For awhile he lived for God, but later became a cruel tyrant.

3. He sanctioned the stoning of Judah’s own high priest, Zechariah, who had fearlessly rebuked the sin among the people.

4. He was executed by his own place guard.

796 BC - 767 BC --- Amaziah- 2 Kings 14:1-20, 2 Chron. 25:1-28

1. He was a good king for awhile, executing the killers of his father, Joash.

2. He was rebuked by a prophet for hiring some mercenary Israel soldiers to help him fight against Edom.

3. He reluctantly dismissed these paid soldiers and, with God’s help, defeated Edom with his own soldiers.

4. He foolishly brought back some of the Edomite gods for worshiping purposes.

5. The reckless king then declared war on northern Israel and was soundly defeated.

792 BC - 740 BC --- Uzziah - 2 Kings 15:1-7, 2 Chron. 26:1-23

1. He was a mightily warrior and builder.

2. He attempted, however, to intrude into the office of the priesthood and was punished for this by leprosy.

750 BC - 736 BC --- Jotham - 2 Kings 15:32-38, 2 Chron. 27:1-9

1. He was a good king.

2. He built the upper gate of the Temple and erected fortresses and towers.

3. He defeated his enemies and received hugs annual tribute from them.

735 BC - 719 BC --- Ahaz - 2 Kings 16:1-20, 2 Chron. 28:1-27

1. He was perhaps the second worst king of Judah.

2. He sacrifice his own children to devil gods.

3. He was the first person to hear about the virgin birth (Isa. 7:1-25).

4. He ordered the construction of a pagan Assyrian altar and placed it in the Temple to appease Tiglath-Pileser.

716 BC - 687 BC --- Hezekiah - 2 Kings 18:1 – 20:21, 2 Chron. 29:1 – 32:33

1. He was Judah’s second best king and the richest of all.

2. He repaired the Temple, organized an orchestral group, and appointed a Levitical singing choir.

3. He carried out the greatest Passover celebration since Solomon.

4. He saw the death angel defeat the Assyrian enemies which had surrounded Jerusalem.

5. He was supernaturally healed of a terminal disease and given an additional fifteen years to live.

6. He added fifteen Psalms to the Old Testament Canon.

7. He foolishly showed the wealth of Judah to some nosy Babylonian ambassadors.

697 BC - 642 BC --- Manasseh - 2 Kings 21:1-18, 2 Chron. 33:1-20

1. He ruled longer than any other king of north or south.

2. He was the most wicked king of all.

3. He repented and turned to God while in an enemy prison.

643 BC - 641 BC --- Amon - 2 Kings 21:19-26, 2 Chron. 33:21-25

1. He was wicked like his father, Manasseh, but did not repent as did his father.

2. He was executed by his own household servants.

641 BC - 609 BC --- Josiah - 2 Kings 22:1 – 23:30, 2 Chron. 34:1 – 35:27

1. He was the most godly king since David.

2. He was Judah’s last godly king.

3. The book of Moses was accidentally discovered among the debris in the Temple at the beginning of his reign.

4. He used this to lead Judah in a great revival.

5. He also conducted a larger Passover celebration than that of Hezekiah his great-grandfather.

6. He fulfilled a three-hundred-year-old prophecy (1 Kings 13:1-2, 2 Kings 23:15)

7. Josiah was wounded in battle at Megiddo by Necho (Neco), king of Egypt, and then returned to Jerusalem where he died in 609 BC.

8. Jeremiah began to prophesy in the thirteenth year of Josiah (626 BC). He prophesied until the deportation of the captives of Jerusalem (586 BC), forty years.

609 BC (3 months) --- Jehoahaz - 2 Kings 23:31-22, 2 Chron. 36:1-4

1. Jehoahaz reigned for three months and was carried in bonds to Egypt by Necho where he died.

2. He was the middle son of Josiah.

3. He was deposed after only ninety days by the Pharaoh who had killed his father.

4. He was carried into Egyptian captivity where he eventually died.

609 BC - 598 BC --- Jehoiakim - 2 Kings 23:34 – 24:5, 2 Chron. 36:5-7

1. Daniel 1:1 states that in the third year of Jehoiakim (606 BC), Jerusalem was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar.

2. He was the oldest brother of Jehoahaz.

3. He was put on the throne by the Egyptian Pharaoh.

4. He was later made a slave by Nebuchadnezzar, for three years (600-598), after the Babylonians had defeated the Egyptians.

5. He was totally materialistic and self-centered. He can be considered Judah’s third worst king.

6. He murdered the innocent and often persecuted Jeremiah.

7. Jehoiakim took his pen knife, cut up and burned a copy of a part of God’s Word (Jer. 36:23-32).

8. Having do so, Jeremiah prophesied that Jehoiakim would have no seed to sit upon the throne of David and that his lifeless body would be unburied and exposed in the day to the heat and at night to the frost.

9. He experienced the first of the three fearful "visits" Nebuchadnezzar made to the city of Jerusalem.

10. During this visit (606 BC) Daniel and other Hebrew young people were carried off into captivity.

11. At his death he received the burial of an ass, as Jeremiah had predicted.

598 BC (3 months) --- Jehoiachin - 2 Kings 24:6-16, 2 Chron. 36:8-10

1. He was the son of Jehoiakim and grandson of Josiah.

2. He incurred a curse from God, stating that his sons would not sit upon Judah’s throne.

3. Both Ezekiel (19:5-9) and Jeremiah (22:24-26) predicted he would be carried off into Babylonian captivity.

4. This happened during Nebuchadnezzar’s second "visit" (597 BC) to Jerusalem.

5. His mother, his wives, his servants, the craftsmen and smiths, his princes, and his officers along with Ezekiel were carried away at this time. A total of 10,000 captives

6. All the treasures' of the temple and king's house were taken to Babylon.

7. He eventually died in Babylon.

8. Ezekiel saw his first vision in the filth year of Jehoiachin's captivity.

597 BC - 586 BC --- Zedekiah - 2 Kings 24:17 – 25:30, 2 Chron. 36:11-21

1. Zedekiah was the youngest son of Josiah and uncle to Jehoiachin.

2. Jerusalem was again besieged by Nebuchadnezzar from the ninth through the eleventh years of Zedekiah, 588-586.

3. Jeremiah was persecuted during his reign.

4. He rebelled against Babylon along with Egypt.

5. He was captured, his sons were killed before him, then he was blinded, and carried off into Babylonian captivity by Nebuchadnezzar.

6. Nebuzaradan, the captain of the guard, burned the temple, broke down the wall of Jerusalem and burned its fortified buildings in 586 BC.

586 BC - 516 BC --- Babylonian Captivity - (From Destruction of Temple To Restoration)

A. There Were Three Distinct Phases Of The Babylonian Captivity:

606 BC --- Daniel and other individuals of noble birth were carried away. Dan. 1:3-4, 2 Chron. 36:6-7.

(From Daniel to the 50,000 under Zerubbabel was only 68 years)

597 BC --- King Johoiachin and Ezekiel, along with many others, were taken into Babylon. 2 Kings 24:10-16

586 BC --- Zedekiah, Judah’s last king, was carried away, the walls of Jerusalem were destroyed, and both Temple and city were burned. 2 Kings 25:1-7

First Temple Was Destroyed

B. There Were Three Distinct Phases of The Return From Babylonian Captivity:

538 BC --- Zerubbabel --- 50,000

a. 516 --- The Temple was Restored.

b. 479 --- Esther become Queen of Persia --- She was the wife of Xerxes.

458 BC --- Ezra led the Second expedition.


445 BC --- Nehemiah rebuilt the Walls of Jerusalem.


C. Israel Has Since Lived Under The Following Authorities:

1. Persian --- 536 BC - 332 BC
2. Hellenistic --- 332 BC - 166 BC
3. Maccabean --- 166 BC - 63 BC
4. Roman --- 63 BC - 313 AD
5. Byzantine --- 313 AD - 636 AD
6. Arab Rule --- 636 AD - 1099 AD
7. Crusader Domination --- 1099 AD - 1291 AD
8. Mamluk Rule --- 1291 AD - 1516 AD
9. Ottoman Rule --- 1517 AD - 1917 AD
10. British Rule --- 1918 AD - 1948 AD

Israel Regains Statehood! --- May 24, 1948 AD

536 BC - 332 BC --- Persian Rule

332 BC - 166 BC --- Hellenistic Rule --- Conquered by Alexander The Great.

Alexander The Great --- 332 BC - 323 BC
Philip Arrhidaeus --- 323 BC - 316 BC
Alexander IV --- 316 BC - 304 BC

166 BC - 63 BC --- Maccabean Rule

63 BC - 313 AD --- Roman Rule --- Captured by Roman general Pompey

Roman Emperors

Augustus --- 30 B.C. - 14 A.D.
Tiberius --- 14 A.D. - 37 A.D.
Gaius Caligula --- 37 A.D. - 41 A.D.
Claudius --- 41 A.D. - 54 A.D.
Nero --- 54 A.D. - 68 A.D.
Galba --- 68 A.D. - 69 A.D.
Vespasianus --- 69 A.D. - 79 A.D.
Titus --- 79 A.D. - 81 A.D.
Domitianus --- 81 A.D. - 96 A.D.
Nerva --- 96 A.D. - 98 A.D.
Trajanus --- 98 A.D. - 117 A.D.
Hadrianus --- 117 A.D. - 138 A.D.
Antoninus Pius --- 138 A.D. - 161 A.D.
Marcus Aurelius --- 161 A.D. - 180 A.D.
Lucius Verrus --- 
Commodus --- 180 A.D. - 192 A.D.
Septimus Severus --- 193 A.D. - 211 A.D.
Caracalla --- 198 A.D. - 217 A.D.
Geta --- 209 A.D. - 212 A.D.

37 BC - 4 BC --- Herod, Roman vassal King rules the land of Israel.

Temple in Jerusalem is refurbished.

4 BC --- Jesus Is Born

26 AD --- Jesus Began His Ministry --- (Being about 30 years of age)

30 AD - Nisan 14th --- Jesus Was Crucified

70 AD - Av 9 --- Second Temple Was Destroyed

313 AD - 636 AD --- Byzantine Rule

636 AD - 1099 AD --- Arab Rule

691 AD --- Dome of The Rock --- Completed by Caliph Abd al-Malik

1099 AD --- Crusaders Take Jerusalem --- Led by Godfrey de Bouillon

1291 AD - 1516 AD --- Mamluk Rule

1492 AD --- Christopher Columbus makes the first of four voyages to the New World, funded by the Spanish Crown, seeking a western sea route to Asia.

Oct. 12 --- Sailing the Santa Maria, he lands in the Bahamas, thinking it is an outlying Japanese island.

The esteemed Harvard historian, Samuel Eliot Morison wrote, in his Pulitzer Prize - winning book, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: I cannot forget the eternal faith that sent this man forth, to the benefit of all future ages. Columbus sought the conversion of the natives. On the premise that people are lost without Christ, such a concern could interpreted as an expression of genuine love rather than of hate. He prayed on San Salvador: "O Lord Almighty and Everlasting God by Thy holy Word Thou hast created the heaven, and the earth, and the sea; blessed and glorified be Thy Name, and praised be Thy Majesty, which hath designed to use us, Thy humble servants, that Thy holy Name may be proclaimed in this second part of the earth."

According to Morison, "Columbus always loved to apply the Sacred Scriptures to his own life and adventures."

Wilbur E. Garret, National Geographic Editor, shares that this was also true at his death; "Son Ferdinand reports that Columbus repeated the words attributed to Christ on the Cross --- 'Into your hands, Father, I commend my soul' --- and died."

1517 AD - 1917 AD --- Ottoman Turks Conquer Palestine

1754 - July 3 --- 1763 - Feb. 10 --- French & Indian War

1775 - April 19 --- 1783 - Sept. 3 --- Revolutionary War

1776 --- United States of America Is Founded

1787 - Sept. 17th --- Continental Congress approves the Constitution and sends it to the states for ratification.

1788 - June 21 --- United States Constitution goes into effect now that the necissary 9 states have ratified it.

1789 - April 30 --- George Washington is sworn in as the 1st President of the United States.

1791 - Dec. 15 --- Bill of Rights --- (1st 10 Amendments) - ia adopted by the United States Congress.

1803 - April 30 --- Louisiana Territory purchased for $15 million.

1812 - June 18 --- 1814 - Dec. 24 --- War of 1812.

1846 - May 8 --- 1848 - Feb. 2 --- Mexican War.

1861 - April 12 --- 1865 - May --- The Civil War

1860 --- Nov. 6 --- Abraham Lincoln is elected President, the first Republican.

Dec 20 --- South Carolina Secedes From The Union. Followed within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.

1861--- Feb 9 --- The Confederate States of America is formed with Jefferson Davis as President.

April 12 --- Civil War Begins - at 4:30 a.m. Confederates under Gen. Pierre Beauregard open fire with 50 cannons upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.

April 15 --- Robert E. Lee is offered command of the Union Army. Lee declines.

April 17 --- Virginia secedes from the Union, followed within five weeks by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.

Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army and accepts the command of the military and naval forces of Virginia.

July 21 --- The Union Army under Gen. Irvin McDowell suffers a defeat at Bull Run 25 miles southwest of Washington. Confederate Gen. Thomas J. Jackson earns the nickname "Stonewall,"

1862 - Feb 6 --- Victory for Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in Tennessee, capturing Fort Henry, and ten days later Fort Donelson. Grant earns the nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant.

April 24 - 17 --- Union ships under the command of Flag Officer David Farragut move up the Mississippi River then take New Orleans. Later in the war, sailing through a Rebel mine field Farragut utters the famous phrase "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!"

June 1 --- Gen. Robert E. Lee assumes command, replacing the wounded Johnston.

Sept 4-9 --- Lee invades the North with 50,000 Confederates and heads for Harpers Ferry, located 50 miles northwest of Washington.

Sept 17 --- The bloodiest day in U.S. military history as Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Armies are stopped at Antietam in Maryland by McClellan and numerically superior Union forces. By nightfall 26,000 men are dead, wounded, or missing. Lee then withdraws to Virginia.

1863 - Jan 1 --- President Lincoln issues the final Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in territories held by Confederates.

March 3 --- The U.S. Congress enacts a Draft, affecting male citizens aged 20 to 45, but also exempts those who pay $300 or provide a substitute.

May 1-4 --- Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson is mortally wounded by his own soldiers.

July 1-3 --- The Tide of War Turns Against The South as the Confederates are defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania.

Nov 19 --- President Lincoln delivers a two minute Gettysburg Address at a ceremony dedicating the Battlefield as a National Cemetery.

1864 - March 9 --- President Lincoln appoints Gen. Grant to command all of the armies of the United States.

1865 - Jan 31 --- The U.S. Congress approves the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, to Abolish Slavery.

Feb 3 --- Only Lee's Army at Petersburg and Johnston's forces in North Carolina remain to fight for the South against Northern forces now numbering 280,000 men.

March 25 --- The Last Offensive For Lee's Army of Northern Virginia begins with an attack on the center of Grant's forces at Petersburg. Four hours later the attack is broken.

April 2 --- Grant's forces begin a general advance and break through Lee's lines at Petersburg.

April 9 --- Gen. Robert E. Lee Surrenders his Confederate Army to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox Court House in Virginia.

On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee put on his finest dress uniform mounted Traveller, and rode away from his tired and tattered troops to Appomattox, where he would surrender his beaten army to General Ulysses S. Grant. As Lee rode to meet his conqueror, he fully expected that his men would be herded like cattle into railroad cars and taken to a Union prison, and that he, as their general, would be tried and executed as a disgraced traitor.

In the tidy living room of the home where the vanquished and the victor met, Lee asked Grant what his terms of surrender were to be. Grant told Lee that his men were free to take their horses with them and go back to their little farms and that Lee too was free to go home and create a new life. Lee offered Grant his sword; Grant refused it. Lee heaved a sigh; he came expecting to be humiliated, and left with dignity and honor. As he watched General Lee mount Traveller and ride back to his troops, Grant took off his hat and saluted his defeated enemy. It was a gracious grace.

And it deeply affected the defeated general as long as he lived, Lee allowed no critical word of Grant to be spoken in his presence.

April 14 --- Lincoln and his wife Mary see the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater. At 10:13 p.m., during the third act of the play, John Wilkes Booth Shoots The President in the head.

April 18 --- Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrenders to Sherman near Durham in North Carolina.

April 26 --- John Wilkes Booth Is Shot And Killed in a tobacco barn in Virginia.

May --- Civil War Ends, remaining Confederate forces surrender.

Over 620,000 Americans died in the war, with disease killing twice as many as those lost in battle. 50,000 survivors return home as amputees.

Dec 6 --- The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, is finally ratified. Slavery is abolished.

1897 --- First Zionist Congress --- Convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel.

1897 - April 20 --- 1898 - Aug. 12 --- Spanish - American War

1901 - Sept. 6 --- President William McKinley is shot by anarchist Leon Czolgosz. McKinley dies eight days later, making Theodore Roosevelt presidnet.

1903 - Dec. 17 --- Orville and Wilbur Wright achieve a 59-second flight in a gasoline powered craft at Kitty Hawk. N.C.

1912 - April 14 --- The Titanic sinks, killing more than 1,500 people.

1914 - June 28 --- Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, is killed in Sarajevo, Bosnia, setting World War I in motion.

1917 - 1948 --- British Capture Palestine From The Turks During World War 1

1914 - July 28 --- 1918 - Nov. 11 --- World War I

1914 - July 28 --- WWW-1 starts when the Triple Alliance (The Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) declares war on the Triple Entente (The Allied Powers: France, Great Britain, and Russia).

1917 - April 6 --- The United States enters World War 1 on the side of the Allies.

Aug. 5 --- The United States National Guard is established.

1918 - March 3 --- Russia pulls out of World War 1.

Nov. 11 --- The Allied and Central Powers sign an armistice, ending World War 1.

1919 - June 28 --- The Treaty of Versailles is signed, ending World War 1.

Balfour Treaty --- Establishment of a "Jewish National Home In Palestine".

1922 - 1948 --- British Rule Palestine Under A Mandate From The Legue of Nations.

Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish National Home.

1918 --- A worldwide flue epidemic kills more than 20 million people.

1919 --- Texas voters approve a state prohibition amendment making the state dry ahead of national Prohibition.

1920 - Jan. 16 --- Prohibition Begins Nationally.

We are told by the liberal press and humanistic education that Prohibition Was A Failure! --- But Was It?

When you consider that Neither Major Political Party endorsed or enforced the Prohibition Law and that they placed Major Distillery Stockholder Andrew Melton in charge of Prohibition enforcement It Is Amazing That Prohibition:

1. Reduced the fatally rate from cirrhosis of the liver by more than 50%.
2. Reduced the consumption of absolute alcohol by almost 70%.
3. Closed down most alcoholic clinics and hospital treatment wards for lack of business.
4. Greatly reduced the crime rate and the prison population. Many correctional institutions were closed.
5. Increased bank deposits from $15.8 billion in 1920 to $28.9 billion in 1924 --- (Just four years).
6. Wife beating and lack of family support decreased 82%.
7. Drunkenness was down 55:3%
8. Assault was down 53:1%
9. Vagrancy decreased 525.8%
10. Disorderly conduct decreased 51.5%
11. Delinquency was down 50% --- and factory attendance and work output greatly increased,
12. General domestic complaints decreased 3 times,
13. County hospitals had the lowest deatah rate in history,
14. Crime throughout the nation, excluding Chicago, was down 38% --- Chicago was down 25%.
15. Welfare assistance was cut in half.

Prohibition was repealed Not Because It Failed, but because it worked too well for the two dominate parties and their friends in the liquor traffic.

Within a Couple of Years, after prohibition, Drunkenness increased 350% --- and Crime and Traffic Deaths have spiraled upwards continually.

Aug. 26 --- Women's Suffrage is proclaimed after Tennessee's ratificaiton of the 19th Amendment.

1929 - Oct. 29 --- New York Stock Market crashes --- Great Depression Begins.

World War II --- Holocust In Europe

1921 - July 29 --- Adolf Hitler becomes leader of National Socialist 'Nazi' Party.

1926 - Sept 8 --- Germany admitted to League of Nations.

1932 - Nov 8 --- Roosevelt elected President of the United States.

1933 - Jan 30 --- Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.

March 12 --- First Concentration Camp opened at Oranienburg outside Berlin.

March 23 --- Enabling Act gives Hitler Dictatorial Power.

April 1 --- Nazi boycott of Jewish owned shops.

May 10 --- Nazis burn books in Germany.

July 14 --- Nazi party declared only party in Germany.

Oct 14 --- Germany Quits League of Nations.

1934 - Aug 19 --- Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany.

1935 --- March 16 --- Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles by introducing military conscription.

Sept 15 --- German Jews stripped of rights by Nuremberg Race Laws.

1936 - Feb 10 --- The German Gestapo is placed above the law.

1937 - June 11 --- Soviet leader Stalin begins purge of Red Army generals.

June 14 --- (Travis Case was born June 14 at 5:00 p.m., 12 minutes before his younger brother, in Pine Bluff, Ark. You didn't think that I would leave that out did you? ha.)

1938 - March 12/13 --- Germany announces 'Anschluss' (union) with Austria.

Oct 15 --- German troops occupy Sudetenland; Czech government resigns.

1939 - March 15/16 --- Nazis take Czechoslovakia.

May 22 --- Nazis sign 'Pact of Steel' with Italy.

Aug 23 --- Nazis and Soviets sign Pact.

Aug 25 --- Britain and Poland sign Mutual Assistance Treaty.

Sept 3 --- Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand Declare War On Germany.

Sept 5 --- United States Proclaims Neutrality; German troops cross Vistula river in Poland.

Sept 10 --- Canada declares war on Germany; Battle of the Atlantic begins.

Sept 27 --- Warsaw surrenders to Nazis;

Reinhard Heydrich becomes leader of new Reich Main Security Office (RSHA).

Oct --- Nazis begin Euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany.

Nov 8 --- Assassination Attempt on Hitler Fails.

Dec 14 --- Soviet Union Expelled From League of Nations.

1940 - Jan 8 --- Rationing begins in Britain.

March 12 --- Finland signs peace treaty with Soviets.

April 9 --- Nazis invade Denmark and Norway.

May 10 --- Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands;

Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister.

May 15 --- Holland surrenders to Nazis.

May 28 --- Belgium surrenders to Nazis.

June 10 --- Norway surrenders to Nazis; Italy declares war on Britain and France.

Aug 13 --- German bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England.

Sept 13 --- Italians invade Egypt.

Sept 15 --- Massive German air raids on London, Southampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and Manchester.

Sept 16 --- United States Military Conscription Bill Passed.

Nov 5 --- Roosevelt re-elected as U.S. President.

1941- May 24 --- Sinking of the British ship Hood By The Bismarck.

May 27, 1941 --- Sinking Of The Bismarck by the British Navy.

June 14, 1941 --- USA Freezes German And Italian Assets in America.

July 26, 1941 --- Roosevelt Freezes Japanese Assets in United States and suspends relations.

Sept 1, 1941 --- Nazis order Jews to wear Yellow Stars.

Sept 3, 1941 --- First experimental use of Gas Chambers at Auschwitz.

Sept 29, 1941 --- Nazis murder 33,771 Jews at Kiev.

Dec 7, 1941 --- Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbor; Hitler issues Night and Fog decree.

Dec 8, 1941 --- United States And Britain Declare War On Japan.

Dec 11, 1941 --- Hitler Declares War On United States.

1942 - April --- Japanese-Americans in USA sent to relocation centers.

June --- Mass murder of Jews by Gassing begins at Auschwitz Extermination Camp.

July 22 --- First Deportations from Warsaw Ghetto to concentration camps;

Treblinka extermination camp opened.

July 25/26 --- Mussolini arrested and Fascist government falls;

1943 - Sept 12 --- Germans rescue Mussolini.

1944 - Oct 21 --- Massive German surrender at Aachen.

Oct 30 --- Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz.

1945 - April 12 --- Allies liberate Buchenwald and Belsen concentration camps;

President Roosevelt dies. Truman becomes President.

April 28 --- Mussolini Captured And Hanged by Italian partisans; Allies take Venice.

April 29 --- U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau concentration camp.

April 30 --- Adolf Hitler Commits Suicide.

May 2 --- German troops in Italy surrender.

May 7 --- Unconditional Surrender of all German forces to Allies.

May 8 --- VE (Victory in Europe) Day.

July 1 --- U.S., British, and French troops move into Berlin.

Aug 6 --- First Atomic Bomb dropped, on Hiroshima, Japan.

Aug 8 --- Soviets declares war on Japan and invade Manchuria.

Aug 9 --- Second Atomic Bomb dropped, on Nagasaki, Japan.

Aug 14 --- Japanese agree to Unconditional Surrender.

Aug 15 --- VJ (Victory over Japan) Day.

Oct 24 --- United Nations is officially born.

Nov 20 --- Nuremberg War Crimes Trials Begin.

1948 - May 14 --- Israel Regains Statehood.

1948 -May 15 --- Israel is Invaded By Five Arab States.

(Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq)

May 1948 - July 1949 --- War of Independence.

Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established.

Israel Admitted To United Nations> --- as 59th member.

Adolf Eichmann --- Tried and executed in Israel for his part in the Holocaust.

1967 - June --- Six-Day War.

June 7 --- The Old City of Jerusalem Is Taken

1973 - Oct. 6-24 --- Yom Kippur War/

1975 --- European Common Market --- Israel becomes an Associate Member.

1979 --- Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty Signed.

1991 --- Israel Attacked By Iraqi --- Scud missiles during Gulf war.

1992 --- Israel established Diplomatic Relations With China.

1994 --- Israel established Full Diplomatic Relations With The Holy See.

1994 --- Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty Signed.

1950 - June 25 --- Korean War starts

1961 - April 17 --- Bay of Pigs

1962 - Oct. 14 - 22 --- Cuban Missile Crisis

1963 - Nov. 1 --- American / Vietnamese Forces stage a coup in Vietnam

1964 - Aug. 7 --- United States begins military presence in Vietnam

1969 - July 20 --- American Astronaught Neil Armstrong Is The First Human To Walk On The Moon

1970 - April 30 --- American Forces Invade Cambodia

1970 - Dec. 31 --- United States Begins Withdrawing Troops From Vietnam

1972 - Dec. 18-28 --- American Forces Bomb Hanoi and Haiphong

1973 - Jan. 27 --- Vietnam War Ends

1979 - Nov. 4 --- Iranians Seize The American Embassy In Tehran, taking 52 people hostage

1981 - Jan. 20 --- Ronald Reagan is sworen in as 43rd President of the United States

The hostages from the American Embassy in Tehran are freed

1990 - Aug. 2 --- 1991 - Feb. 28 --- Persian Gulf War -

1998 - Dec. 19 --- President William Jefferson Clinton (42nd President of the U.S.) became the First Elected President to ever be Impeached. He was impeached on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice.

Note --- Andrew Johnson (17th president of the U.S., 1865-1869) was not elected, he took office upon the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln during the closing months of the American Civil War (1861-65).

1999 - Dec. 31 --- Panama Gains Control of The Panama Canal from the United States

Travis Case
Tearing Down Walls & Building Bridges

How May I Be Saved And Know That I Am Saved?

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