Hostage Negotiations --- Travis Case Web Site
Hostage          Negotiations

Travis Case, Pastor/Teacher                         Northgate Baptist Church
"A merry heart doeth good like a medicine:"(Prov. 17:22)

During the past forty years I have worked with many suicidal people, from a former Coach of an NFL team to a Vietnam Vet. and many inbetween. On more than one occasion I have taken a gun or guns or a knife away from a person threating to kill themselfs. On one occasion, it was three guns from a police officer. God has truly been good because, so far, I have never talked to or counselled with a person who later took their own life. Truly, God Does Have The Answer to all our problems if we will only listen to Him. However, the following information is not given for the purpose of making hostage negotiators or suicide counselors out of Chaplains. Most Chaplains would not want to get involved in such activity. The following is for information purposes only, so that you might better understand the officers that you will be working with.

Compiled by Travis Case
(From Extensive Notes Taken in Classes & Seminars)

Introduction
What Kind of People Take Hostages
Paranoid
Antisocial
Inadequate Personality
Depressed
The Situational Stress Reaction
Time - Advantages / Disadvantages
Don'ts of Hostage Negotiations
Principles of Communication
The Stockholm Syndrome
Hostage Negotiation Team Responsibilities:
How To Negotiate Without Seeming To Negotiate
Introduction By Negotiator
Primary Negotiator
Secondary Negotiator
Negotiations Coordinator
Coach (Dept. Psychologist)
Intelligence Coordinator
Think Tank
Chronologist
Messenger
Interviewer
Negotiator Check List
What
Where
Communication
Check List
Hostage Information
Demands
Information Report
Lethality Scale
Witnesses
Contact Information
Notification List
Hostage Area No. ___
Building Information - 1
Building Information - 1
Hostage Negotiation Study Questions
Why Do People Take Hostages?

Introduction:

A. Chaplains will seldom (if ever) be used in hostage negotiations.

1. They generally are not trained negotiators nor are they generally good candidates for such training.

2. Most are not emotionally equipped to handle such a situation.

3. They could very well cause more harm than good.

B. However, there are areas where a Chaplain may be of great benefit in a hostage situation:

1. Provide support and encouragement for the officers by his/her presence.

(Visible reminder that a Higher Power is also involved)

2. Provide religious expertise if needed.

3. Provide comfort and support for victims such as family members.

(He should have a calming and reassuring demeanor)

4. Gather information that may be of help to the negotiating team.

(By spending caring time with the family, the chaplain not only helps them through the tension-filled time, he may also be able to gather valuable information to help resolve the incident.)

5. Pray is obviously an important task --- Done privately and quietly.

C. Important --- Clergy, family, friends, attorneys, mental health professionals, media representatives, etc. should NOT be used as hostage negotiators unless they are specially trained.

1. Under stress, one will revert to comfortable behavior.

2. They are not trained negotiators.

3. They are not prepared to participate in tactical response.

4. They are not used to violent situations.

5. They are not used to talking to criminals.

6. The HT's view of clergy, etc. may be different than yours.

7. It is a Law Enforcement responsibility.

D. Remember, the main role of the chaplain in critical incident situations is supportive --- to give aid and comfort to departmental personnel and to victims.

E. The following information is not given for the purpose of equipping the Chaplain to be a hostage negotiator, but rather that he might better understand a little of what is going on. --- (So he can stay out of the way.)

Definitions:

A. Hostage --- A person held by another person as security for the fulfillment of certain terms.

B. Negotiation --- To arrange for settlement by conferring or discussing --- Bargaining to reach an agreement.

C. Hostage Negotiation --- Releasing hostages and resolving the incident without violence.

D. Mediation --- The intervention of a third party.

Rapport --- Negotiation --- Surrender



What Kind of People Take Hostages?

The Paranoid Condition ( Schizophrenia)

A. Including delusions of reference --- reference everything to himself.

B. Expectation of trickery or harm and questioning the loyalty of others.

C. Hyper vigilance, scanning for threats or taking unneeded precautions.

D. Thinking that others are spying on him, spreading rumors about him, betraying him or planning to harm him.

1. He may experience hallucinations, especially voices commenting on his behavior --- He may believe that his thinking and/or behavior is controlled by an external force.

2. Delusions of persecution, grandeur (glory) or jealously.

3. Anger, argumentativeness and occasional violence (including suicide).

4. Guardedness and/or secretiveness which may result in social withdrawal, isolation and sexual confusion.

5. He believes that he is an important person who is misunderstood and unappreciated --- hypersensitivity as indicated by a tendency to be easily slighted.

6. Restricted affect as indicated by a cold, unemotional appearance, a pride in being "objective, rational and unemotional", no sense of humor and an absence of passive, soft, tender and sentimental feelings.

7. Unrealistic concern about autonomy or sexual identity.

8. His demands may be unusual or bizarre.

Negotiation Guidelines --- Paranoid Conditions:

1. His need to explain may offer an opportunity to establish rapport.

Allow him to vent --- (Let him talk, try to stay with concrete topics)

2. Do not try to argue him out of his delusions.

3. Try to ally yourself with his perspective without sounding insincere.

4. Avoid use of family members as they may be part of the delusional system.

5. Media (Publicity) attention may be a negotiable item ---

(grandiose delusion).

You may have to save until the end --- the icing on the cake.

6. There may be a negative attitude toward the mental health profession.

7. Do not stare or get too close (expanded body space).

Consider using an opposite sex negotiator.

8. Good negotiators may be rejected with time.

The Antisocial Personality --- (Psychopath, Sociopath)

A. An inability to maintain a close, intimate, enduring interpersonal relationships.

1. Shows no significant loyalty to individuals, groups or social values.

2. Potential defector / agent.

3. Relationships with others are manipulative and self-serving.

4. Inability to sustain consistent work or social behavior.

B. Lack of ability to function as a responsible parent.

C. Maniacentric, Egocentric, callous, irresponsible, impulsive, sexually experimenting, reckless.

Short run hedonist --- wants what he wants when he wants it --- Out for # 1.

D. Little or no conscience development --- Rationalizes and blames others for his behavior, does not feel guilt or remorse --- amoral.

1. Projection --- "I'm ok --- it's their fault."

2. Inconclusive in polygraph examination.

E. Failure to accept social norms with respect to lawful behavior as indicated by:

1. Repeated thefts,

2. An illegal occupation,

3. Multiple arrest,

4. Felony conviction ...

F. Low trait anxiety level (not a "worrier").

G. Low tolerance for frustration.

H. May put up a "good front".

1. Extremely cool --- high verbal skills.

2. Manipulative.

3. He may end up interviewing you.

I. The onset of his behavior usually starts before age fifteen.

J. Excessive alcohol or drug use is prevalent.

K. His demands are usually moderate.

L. Punishment does not alter unacceptable behavior.

1. Tough nut to crack --- tactical solution is best.

2. Solution has to be face-saying, otherwise you are looking at a shoot-out.

Negotiating Guidelines --- Antisocial Personality:

1. Keep his egocentricity in mind.

(Ego stimulation & ego threat are prime motivator)

2. Keep him busy.

3. Must be convinced that the safe release of the hostages is to his advantage.

4. Negotiation should be reality oriented.

5. Non-police negotiators will be of marginal value or only make the situation worse.

The Inadequate Personality.

A. Throughout most of his life he has demonstrated in-adaptability, ineffective, poor judgment and inept responses to social, emotional, intellectual and physical stress.

1. Chaotic family relationship.

2. Marital problems likely.

3. Lack of social, physical and emotional stability.

4. Sexual irregularities.

5. Fantasy.

B. He will often be a high school dropout.

C. He may have had a succession of jobs, having been fired from each because of poor performance.

D. He sees himself as a loser, someone who has always failed --- even crimes may have been poorly planned.

1. Long history of things gone wrong.

2. Suicidal potential.

3. Last thing he wants to be reminded of is failure.

E. He can be incredibly manipulative.

1. Calm, cool & polite.

2. Inadequate personality may be example of person who always gets others to do things for him.

3. Negotiate via others (has others do chores for him) --- life long malady.

4. This already surfaced in childhood --- starts at age 4-5.

5. Overindulgence on part of parents.

F. Taking hostages may be his last attempt to prove to someone (wife, parents, or girlfriend) that he can succeed at doing something.

G. The hostage incident, including the attention from authority figures and the media, maybe the high point of his life.

H. This type of disorder can be recognized by statements such as "I'll show them that I really can do something" or "I'll show them that I am not the scapegoat anymore," etc.

I. He is in contact with reality, is thinking clearly (although immaturely), can understand the consequences of his actions, and can be negotiated with successfully.

J. Strong Stockholm Syndrome is possible

"He's not such a bad guy", "I felt sorry for Him".

K. His demands may be exorbitant at first.

Negotiation Guidelines --- Inadequate Personality:

1. Provide "understanding" and "uncritical acceptance."

2. Help him find a way to end this without having "failed again" --- Build self-esteem.

3. Show understanding and uncritical acceptance.

4. Parents, friends, etc., brought to the scene may cause stronger feelings of failure or embarrassment and cause him to "prove" he can do something "important".

5. Do not introduce non-police negotiators to observe his failure.

6. Consider the use of opposite sex negotiator.

7. After rapport is established, the negotiator may be more authoritative (directive).

(He wants to be accepted)

8. However, because of all the attention he is receiving, he may not want the situation to end.

The Depressed Subject --- (Maniac, Bipolar).

A. Unrealistic sadness, hopelessness --- feelings of inadequacy or worthlessness.

B. Sleep and appetite disturbance.

C. Decreased effectiveness at school, work, home or play.

1. Decreased attention span, concentration or ability to think clearly.

2. Loss of feelings or pleasure of interest.

3. Low energy levels --- slowed thinking, movement or speech.

Indecisiveness or decreased mental activity

4. Loss of interest or enjoyment of sex.

D. Irritability or excessive anger.

E. Brooding about past events --- tearfulness or crying.

F. Psychomotor agitation or retardation.

G. Depressed appearance --- feelings of inadequacy, worthlessness and low self-esteem.

H. Hopelessness and helplessness --- recurrent thoughts of death and suicide.

(Not all depressed persons are suicidal and not all suicidal persons are depressed)

I. He may well be aware of the reason for his depression.

J. Mood-congruent hallucinations and delusions are possible.

K. His demand may be "GO AWAY".

Pain / Anger / Conflict

Negotiation Guidelines --- Depressed Subject:

1. If psychomotor retardation is present, you may have to wait longer than usual for a reply --- (response time is slow)

2. Friends and relatives may provoke or escalate feelings of worthlessness and guilt.

3. Beware of sudden improvements which are unrelated to your negotiation.

4. Keep your time perspective in the "here and now."

Hopeless persons cannot imagine a positive future.

5. He will generally have a small body space.

6. He will generally be honest and straightforward with you.

Once rapport has been established, it may be appropriate to be explicitly directive.

7. Beware of "Suicide By Cop."

8. Real world versus abstract concepts.

9. Attempt to postpone action as opposed to changing mood.

10. Use empathy.

11. Be prepared to repeat reassurances again,m and again, and again.

12. In ALL cases ask: "Are you going to commit suicide?"


The Situational Stress Reaction.

A. No history of mental disorder.

B. Clear precipitating events.

C. Increased anxiety and/or agitated depression.

D. May feel hopeless, helpless, out of control.

E. No acceptable option is clear to him.

Negotiation Guidelines: --- Situational Stress Reaction.

1. Allow him to ventilate his feelings.

2. Then, try to get him to describe events as objectively as possible.

3. Have him go back over the options he has ruled out.

4. Review his descriptions of events, --- and place in a more objective, rational perspective.



"Time" Advantage And Disadvantages:

A. Advantage (positive effect) of "Time."

1. Increases basic human needs.

a. Biological needs.

b. Physical needs.

2. Reduces stress and anxiety.

3. Increases rationality.

4. Allows formation of the stockholm syndrome.

5. Increases the hostage's opportunities for escape.

(Though many think about it, few actually try)

6. Permits better decision making through the gathering of intelligence.

7. Allows formation of negotiator - subject rapport.

8. Subject's expectations are reduced.

B. Disadvantage (Negative effect) of "Time."

1. Exhaustion

a. Thinking clearly --- decision making

b. Short temper, anger

c.

2. Loss of objectivity (sense of purpose).

3. Boredom.

4. Creeping Up Effect

(Outer parameter begins to move toward inner parameter)



"Don'ts" of Hostage Negotiations:

A. Do not exchange hostages (not even the Chaplain).

B. Do not exchange weapons.

C. Do not release prisoners.

D. Do not take the weapon from the subjects hand.

E. Avoid tricks.

F. Avoid deadlines.

1. Use the excuse of crisis and chaos.

2. Blame the brass and red tape.

3. Bring up a prior "request" (e.g. food, drink, cigarettes, etc.) and discuss details of delivery while the deadline is passing.

4. Stall by:

a. Discussing everything in detail (use common sense).

b. Ask open-ended questions.

c. Listening.

d. Restatement of content.

e. Reflection of feeling (active listening techniques).

G. Avoid demands (don't ask for a demand). However, there will be demands:

1. Attempt to get something in return for a concession.

Exceptions:

(1) To build rapport.

(2) Medication for an injured/sick hostage.

2. However, some concessions give "nothing" away.

3. Don't raise his expectations by giving him too much too soon.

4. Log all concessions and agreements.

5. Don't bring up old demands unless it's to your advantage.

H. Don't interrupt HT,

I. Don't ask superfluous questions,

J. Don't be argumentative,

K. Don't make decisions,

L. Don't make promises,

M. Don't use trigger words,

N. Don't say WE meaning you and the police,

O. Don't get subject irritated,

P. Don't Volunteer information,

Q. Don't talk too much,

R. Don't get mad or irritated,

S. Don't make assumptions,

T. Don't get mad at command,

U. Don't be authoritarian,

V. Don't be tough,

W. Don't be soft,

X. Don't be defensive



Principles of Communications In Hostage Negotiations - "DOs".

A. Be credible.

B. Be flexible.

C. Gather intelligence --- Get psychological profile.

D. Use self disclosure techniques.

E. Be supportive, empathetic, and when the subject is rational.

1. Echoing or reflecting,

2. Acknowledge the HTs feelings,

3. Use reassuring cliches,

4. Give positive approval,

5. Talk in terms of WE meaning you and the HT.

F. If you are not sure what the subject meant by what he just said, ask him!

G. Adapt your conversation to his educational and vocabulary level.

(Don't use profanity, He may or may not be use to it).

H. Choose your words, tone and manner very carefully --- have good voice control --- pause ...

(Speak slowly and softly)

I. Ask open ended questions (stalling).

J. Encourage Ventilation.

K. Avoid movement which might negatively excite him.

L. Avoid word bullets.

1. Hostage --- Hostage Negotiator

2. Surrender --- give up

("Come out" is much better)

3. Swat Team

4. Crime --- Jail / Prison --- Sentence

5. End it --- Kill --- Dead

6. Shoot --- "Give you my best shot"

7. Hospital / Institution

M. Practice ACTIVE LISTENING.

1. Assess the subject's:

a. Emotional state,

b. Rationality,

c. Truthfulness.

2. Listen for changes in the above as well as changes in demands.

3. Repeat his demands, but "SOFTEN" them.

N. Downplay what the subject has done so far.

O. Make HT feel responsible for hostages.

P. Nurture escape potential.

Q. Keep the subject in the decision making status.

R. List demands properly.

S. Pass off responsibility.

T. Have good stress tolerance --- you'll need it.



The Stockholm Syndrome.

A. The Stockholm Syndrome is a BOND that develops between the hostage and the hostage taker.

1. The stockholm syndrome is an unconscious, automatic, and emotional response to becoming a victim that establishes a bond between the hostage and the hostage taker.

2. It is a survival mechanism consisting of:

a. Denial,

b. Regression,

c. Identification with the aggressor.

B. Although each individual's reaction to being taken hostage is unique, there is a common set of behaviors that is likely to occur.

1. The hostages may begin to have NEGATIVE feelings toward the POLICE.

a. Fear of police weapons.

b. "Police" will not let them go.

c. Police value money more than their lives.

d. Police are supposed to help, not "make things worse."

2. The hostages may begin to have POSITIVE feelings toward the HOSTAGE TAKER.

a. They have a shared fear: the police and their weapons.

b. They have a shared frustration: they both want to leave.

c. They are captives together.

3. The Hostage Takers may begin to develop Positive Feelings toward their Hostages.

a. Shared fear.

b. Shared frustration.

c. Captives together.

C. Necessary factors for development of the stockholm syndrome.

1. They must be captives together, sharing the same fears and frustrations.

2. Some amount of time must pass.

3. There must be personal contact between the hostages and the hostage takers.

4. The contact must be perceived as positive or "non-negative." (no physical or verbal abuse)

D. Psychological explanations for the Stockholm Syndrome --- there are numerous theories, but no one really knows.

"...men, when they receive good from whence they expect evil, feel all the more indebted to their benefactor ..." --- Machiavelli, The Prince, 1513




Hostage Negotiation Team Responsibilities

How To Negotiate Without Seeming To Negotiate:

Introduction:

1. To deal without appearing to deal, a good go-between is essential.

You need a party trusted by both sides.

2. The rest of the process must be based on carefully calibrated expectations:

Legalistic half-truths --- Subtle evasions, etc.

A. Say You Care, But Act Casual.

B. Aak Officials To Make Concessions You Can't.

C. Keep Asking Obvious Questions.

1. Who holds the hostages?

2. What shape are they in?

D. Always Mince Your Words.

1. Your are dealing with a very sensitive and complex situation.

2. It may be best not to use the word "hostages" --- the word is to emotional.

"Detainee" may be a better word.

E. Watch Out For Hidden Agendas.

F. Don't Try To Solve Everything At Once.

G. Be Patient.

Introduction By Negotiator

1. Don't be judgmental or critical --- Be encouraging.

(Encourage talking, and deal with feeling)

2. My name is __________ (No Rank or Title)

I am with the _________ P.D.

3. "I am here to work with you in solving this situation."

(Or whatever is appropriate for you)

A. Are you O.K.?

B. "Does anyone in there have a problem that we should know about?"

C. "What seems to be the problem?" --- (What has brought you to this situation)

D. "Let me see if I understand what you want?"

4. Other Words and Phrases:

A. First, I'd like to get to know you better.

B. Could you tell me about it?

C. I would like to hear your side?

D. Would you share that with me?

E. I guess that's pretty important to you --- tell me about it.

F. That's interesting.

G. I see --- is that so --- oh --- uh huh.

H. What do you think that you could do --- that would show __________ that you love her/him?

5. Be at ease --- talk slowly.

6. Learn to LISTEN --- WHAT is being said --- HOW is it being said.

7. Do NOT ask for demands.

A. "What can I do for you?"

B. "How can I help you?"

8. Do not dismiss any demands as trivial.

Rapport --- Negotiation --- Surrender

NOTES:

Primary Negotiator

I. Upon arrival on the scene the Primary Negotiator shall report to the on-scene commander.

A. He shall debrief the officers who originated the call.

B. He shall obtain as much information as possible about the situation prior to making contact with the barricaded subject.

II. The Primary Negotiator shall be responsible for the initial contact and ensuing negotiations.

A. He should attempt to put the perpetrator at ease, thereby making resolution of the problem imminent.

B. Keep communications open.

C. Elicit useful information.

D. Achieve safe surrender of the perpetrator with dignity.

III. The Primary Negotiator should be aware of the following important principles:

A. Be conscious of both verbal and non-verbal language.

1. Listen actively --- Being able to effectively assimilate and understand what is actually being said and interpreting the various underlying meanings and messages.

2. Feedback --- giving back to the person information received from him/her so as to assure them that you are understanding their messages.

3. Empathy --- The intimate understanding of the thoughts, feelings and motives of another.

4. Content & Feeling --- Understanding the difference between what is said verbally and what message is really being given.

B. Self Acceptance and Value Clarification is important --- Understanding your own and others' values and being aware of those areas that trigger deep emotions in yourself and others.

C. Have Checkpoint Summaries --- Brief reviews of the main points discussed about issues and demands.

IV. Important suggestions for the Primary Negotiator:

A. Ask the suspect to give up.

B. Allow (encourage) the suspect to ventilate.

(Solicit information from the Hostage-Taker)

C. Ask general questions --- for the following reasons:

1. It encourages ventilation.

2. It takes the pressure off the negotiator.

3. It lets the suspect do the work (talking).

4. Specific questions elicit specific answers.

D. Listen to the suspect --- for the following reasons:

1. It allows us to search for clues.

2. We can pick up tactical information.

3. It demonstrates our concern in the suspect's problem.

E. Be honest, upfront and sincere.

F. Develop a trust relationship.

G. Develop a "we - they" relationship.

H. Avoid a critical tone.

I. Avoid approval or disapproval in your statements unless necessary.

J. Orient the hostage-taker to problem solving.

K. Ignore the hostages --- give them minimal attention.

L. Stall for time.

M. Avoid deadlines.

N. Divert any negative train of thought.

O. Investigate alternatives communicated by the hostage-taker.

P. Avoid telling the suspect how to solve his/her problems.

Q. Check with team leader and Command Post before making any commitments.

R. Do not give away what can be bargained for.

(Remember, trust is an intangible item that beings future rewards.)

S. Don't negotiate demands for weapons, drugs, or hostages (additional/exchange)

T. Present the police position realistically, but neutrally.

U. Be willing and ready to be authoritative.

V. Be aware of tactical considerations.

W. Approach face to face negotiations cautiously.

(Avoid, if possible)

X. Avoid civilian negotiators.

V. The Primary Negotiator is responsible for a follow-up report of his/her part in the incident.

A. This report shall consist of any information that he/she feels would be helpful in future contacts with the perpetrator.

B. He/she shall include comments on the general goals of the negotiations and those tactics used that were positive or negative.

Secondary Negotiator

A. The Secondary is responsible for monitoring the negotiations so as to give feedback to the primary negotiator in regards to:

1. The use of skills,

2. Inflection,

3. Tempo,

4. Trigger words,

5. Interpretation of messages given by the perpetrator,

6. Any other useful information.

B. The Secondary Negotiator has the same responsibilities as the primary negotiator except he/she does not engage in actual conversation unless introduced by the primary negotiator for specific purposes.

C. The Secondary controls access to the primary negotiator, thereby freeing him for negotiations only.

(All messages (information) goes through him)

D. He shall disseminate any information from the primary to the on-scene commander via the messenger.

E. The secondary is the only person in direct contact with the primary negotiator during actual conversation.

1. He/she is the funnel for all information coming into the negotiating room.

2. He/she shall carefully monitor the primary negotiator for signs of stress and should constantly offer moral support and encouragement.

Negotiations Coordinator

A. This role should be filled by the team supervisor unless that person is assigned as primary or secondary negotiator.

B. This person's responsibilities would include liaison between the on-scene commander and messenger, when the messenger is with the negotiator.

C. He/she shall brief these people on the importance and responsibility of their position:

1. Primary Negotiator,

2. Secondary Negotiator,

3. Coach (Dept. Psychologist),

4. Intelligence Coordinator,

D. He/she may also be a liaison between the Public Information Officer and the On-Scene Commander.

Coach (Dept. Psychologist)

A. When requested, he will respond to the Command Post reporting to the On-Scene Commander.

B. After being apprised of the situation and all intelligence gathered to that point, he will, if possible, make a preliminary evaluation of the emotional state of the perpetrator(s).

1. This information will be passed to the On_Scene Commander.

2. He will then be assigned as part of the "think tank."

C. He will continue to monitor the ongoing negotiations and will offer any information or advice that he deems important and useful.

D. After the situation is resolved, he shall make himself available for any follow up support deemed necessary by the On-Scene Commander, such as:

1. Meeting with the negotiators,

2. Press,

3. Family,

4. In case of the use of emergency petition, responding to the hospital for follow up.

E. The Coach (Dept. Psychologist) performs important functions:

1. Psychological assessment,

2. Professional advice to the Primary Negotiator and Commanders (including the Chief),

3. Support of the team (tactical & negotiations),

4. Emotional support to any hostages,

5. Training.


Intelligence Coordinator

A. The Intelligence Coordinator (a trained negotiator) is responsible for assigning persons to gather information about:

1. The perpetrator(s),

2. The hostage(s),

3. The physical scene.

B. All intelligence comes to him/her for dissemination.

C. The Intelligence Coordinator shall use, in order of preference, these personnel for intelligence gathering:

1. Investigative Personnel

2. Trained Negotiators

3. Special Operations Division Officers

4. Uniform Personnel

D. Intelligence gathering should center on these areas:

1. Individual Description

2. Historical Background

a. Criminal

b. Mental

c. Medical

d. Family

e. Close Relationships

f. Significant Events

3. Activities this date.

4. Compatible information regarding victims or hostages.

5. Physical description including entrances and exits of the barricaded area.

E. For research purposes --- follow-up interviews with the principles of a barricade, i.e., suspect/victims at 30, 90, 365 days intervals. The emphasis should be on the "Stockholm Syndrome" and what worked or did not work.

Think Tank

Any additional trained negotiators that may respond will be used at the discretion of the on-scene commander in the area known as the "think tank" and be prepared to assist in any capacity.

Chronologist

A. This person will keep a chronological log by time of all proceedings.

1. Arrival of all personnel on the scene,

2. Requests,

3. Decisions and assignments by on-scene commander,

4. Requests made to the team by other personnel,

5. Any and all pertinent events.

B. Logistically, this person's log should include a brief synopsis of all significant radio transmissions.

C. This log may be used in court as evidence at a later time and should, therefore, be as accurate, concise and complete as possible.

Messenger

The messenger is the conduit for any information from the on-scene commander and the "think tank" to the negotiating room. He/she would be the only person with access to the negotiating room. The messenger would also deliver all messages from the negotiating room to other involved parties. This process insulates the negotiating room from outside distractions.

Interviewer

The Interviewer will be a part of the Intelligence Team and carry out any responsibilities (including interviews) assigned by the Intelligence Coordinator.



Negotiator Check List

What:

A. What Occurred: Emotional (Domestic) Dispute, Crime i.e. Robbery, Political Terrorism, etc.

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________

B. Time of Occurrence: Date: ___________ Time: ________

C. Who called Police Department: _______________________

D. Time Notified: Date: ____________ Time: ____________

E. From Where: Scene: S.H. Telephone: ___________

F. Contained (P.D. Deployed) __________________________

G. Injuries: Yes No Describe:

1. Hostage _____ _____ _________________

2. Police _____ _____ _________________

3. Perpetrator _____ _____ _________________

4. Other _____ _____ _________________

H. Contact with suspect:

1. When: ______________________________________

2. How: _______________________________________

3. By Whom: ___________________________________

4. Anything Promised: ___________________________

________________________________________

I. Weapons: Yes _____ No _____ Verified? ________

(What) ________________________________________

_______________________________________________

J. Number of: Suspects _______ Hostages _______

Where: (Location)

A. Suspects __________________________________________

B. Hostages ________________________________________

C. Police ____________________________________________

D. Floor Plans (Separate Sheet) _________________________

E. Containment (Separate Sheet) ________________________

F. Observation Posts (Number on Sheet) __________________

G. Ingress - Exists (Indicate on Sheet) ____________________

H. Telephones (Indicate on Sheet) ________________________

Communication: (How)

A. Police to Police (Frequency) __________________________

B. Police to Suspect:

1. Bullhorn _____________________________________

2. Field Phone __________________________________

3. Face to Face _________________________________

4. Telephone # __________________________________

5. Other _______________________________________

C. Command Post to Oper. Sect. _______________________

D. Other _____________________________________________

Check List

1. Incident

_____ Location

_____ What Happened

_____ Time

2. Any Injuries To:

_____ Police

_____ Hostages

_____ Hostage Takers

_____ Bystanders

_____ Others

3. Contact

_____ Who Initiated

_____ When

_____ How

_____ Demands

4. Location

_____ Hostages

_____ Hostage Takers

_____ Police

_____ Bystanders

5. Building

_____ Floor Plans

_____ Exits / Entrances

_____ Telephones

_____ Radios / TV's

6. Weapons

_____ Handgun

_____ Rifle / Shotgun

_____ Explosives

_____ Chemical

7. Hostage Takers

_____ How Many

_____ Positive Identification

_____ Description, Clothing

_____ Records Check

_____ Medical and Mental Profile

_____ Family Reports

_____ Friends, Witnesses Reports

8. Hostages

_____ Positive Identification

_____ Description, Clothing

_____ Number

_____ Tied, Bound, Gagged

_____ Injured, Wounded

_____ Medical and Mental Profile

9. Deadlines

_____ Time Limits

_____ Ultimatums

_____ Demands

10. Comments

Hostage # _____

Name: _________________________ Alias(s) ____________________

Participation: (Position, Rank, Customer, relative, etc.) __________________.

Address / Unit ____________________________________________.

Information Verified by: ________________________________

How: _______________________________________________

Description: Religion: _____________

Race _______________ Sex _____ DOB ______/______/______

Height ______' - _______" Weight __________ Glasses _______

Hair _______ Eyes _______ Scars ____________________________

Other _____________________________________________________

Languages(s) Spoken: ________________________________________

Clothing:

Shirt ____________________ Pants/Dress ____________________

Jacket ___________________ Hat ___________________________

Shoes ____________________ Coat __________________________

Other: _____________________________________________________

Medical History (Requirements): ______________________________

____________________________________________________

Psychological Profile: _______________________________________

_____________________________________________________

Behavior (Alcohol, Drugs, Attitude, etc) ________________________

_____________________________________________________

Injuries? __________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

Other Information: __________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

Suspect # _____

Name: _____

Demands:

Date/Time H.T.

D 1 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 2 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 3 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 4 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 5 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 6 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 7 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 8 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 9 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 10 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 11 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 12 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 13 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 14 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 15 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 16 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 17 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 18 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 19 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 20 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 21 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 22 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 23 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 24 __________ ____________________________ ___________

D 25 __________ ____________________________ ___________

Information Report #: _______

Time: _______________________ Date: _____ / _____ / _____

By: _________________________ Position: __________________

Information Received From: _________________________________

Is As Follows:

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Lethality Scale

Criteria

Date _______/_______/_______ Minimal Risk (00-13) _____

Low Risk (16-30) _____

Name ____________________________ Medium Risk (31-46) _____

High Risk (47-60) _____

Circle response in appropriate row and column and place score from top of column in extreme right column. Sum all scores and match total with criteria.

  0 1 2 3 4 Score
Age Male

Female

0-12

0-12

///////

13-44

13-44

45-Up

45-64

///////

65-Up

///////

 
Stress Low ////// Med. ////// High  
Resources Good Fair ////// Poor //////  
Marital Status Married

With

Children

Married

Without

Children

///////

///////

///////

Widowed

Single

Divorced  
Psychological Functioning Stable /////// /////// Unstable ///////  
Symptoms (Alcoholism, drug addiction, Homosexuality Absent ///////

///////

///////

///////

///////

///////

Present  
Communications Open /////// /////// Blocked ///////  
Physical Condition Good Fair /////// /////// Poor  
Suicide By Close Family Member No /////// Yes /////// ///////  
Depressed / Agitated No /////// /////// /////// Yes  
Prior Suicidal Behavior No /////// Yes /////// ///////  
Reaction by Significant Others Helpful /////// /////// Not Helpful ///////  
Financial Stress Absent /////// Present /////// ///////  
Suicidal Plan None Few

Details

Means

Selected

///////

///////

Detail Plan  
Occupation Non-

Helping

Profession

Other

Occupation

M.D.

Dentist

Attorney

Helping

Profession

Psychiatrist

Police

Officer

Unemployed

////////

////////

////////

///////

///////

///////

 
Residence Rural Suburban Urban /////// ///////  
Living Arrangements With Others ///////

///////

///////

///////

///////

///////

Alone  
Time of Year /////// Spring /////// /////// ///////  
Day of Week ///////

///////

Sunday

Wednesday

Monday ///////

///////

///////

///////

 
Serious Arguments With Spouse No Yes ///////      
Significant Other (Recently) ///////

///////

///////

Focus On

Dis -appointment

Loss

Of

///////

///////

///////

///////

///////

///////

 

Hostage Negotiator: ______________________________ Total _____________


Witnesses

Name: ____________________________________________________

Rank / Position: ___________________________________________

Address / Unit: ___________________________________________

Telephone #: ______________________________________________

See Info. Report #: _______ Time: _______ By: _______________

Name: ____________________________________________________

Rank / Position: ___________________________________________

Address / Unit: ___________________________________________

Telephone #: ______________________________________________

See Info. Report #: _______ Time: _______ By: _______________

Name: ____________________________________________________

Rank / Position: ___________________________________________

Address / Unit: ___________________________________________

Telephone #: ______________________________________________

See Info. Report #: _______ Time: _______ By: _______________

Name: ____________________________________________________

Rank / Position: ___________________________________________

Address / Unit: ___________________________________________

Telephone #: ______________________________________________

See Info. Report #: _______ Time: _______ By: _______________

Name: ____________________________________________________

Rank / Position: ___________________________________________

Address / Unit: ___________________________________________

Telephone #: ______________________________________________

See Info. Report #: _______ Time: _______ By: _______________



Contact Information:

Name: _______________________________________ No: _____

Relatives: Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Roommate: Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Business Address _______________________________

_______________________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Friends: Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Doctor: Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Clergy: Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Lawyer: Name _________________________________________

Address _______________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________



Notification List:

Hostage Area No: _____

Location: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Sketch

Communications

Telephone # ___________________________________

Telephone # ___________________________________

Entrances / Exits _____________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Windows _______________________________________________

________________________________________________________

Building Information - 1

Building Description: ________________________________________

Building Number: __________________________________________

Address: __________________________________________________

Floors: _________________ Rooms: ________________________

Entrances / Exits: __________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hostage Area(s): __________________________________________

Room: ___________________ Floor: ___________________

Telephone: ____________________ ____________________

Room: ___________________ Floor: ___________________

Telephone: ____________________ ____________________

Room: ___________________ Floor: ___________________

Telephone: ____________________ ____________________

Room: ___________________ Floor: ___________________

Telephone: ____________________ ____________________

Room: ___________________ Floor: ___________________

Telephone: ____________________ ____________________

Building Information - 2

Fire Equipment Location(s):

Type: ___________ Floor: ___________ Area: ___________

Type: ___________ Floor: ___________ Area: ___________

Type: ___________ Floor: ___________ Area: ___________

Type: ___________ Floor: ___________ Area: ___________

Type: ___________ Floor: ___________ Area: ___________

Type: ___________ Floor: ___________ Area: ___________

Heating/Air Conditioning Unit(s):

Type: ___________________ Area: ______________________

__________________ Floor: __________ Room: __________

Type: ___________________ Area: ______________________

__________________ Floor: __________ Room: __________

Emergency Shutoff Location(s): ______________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Plumbing / Water Shutoff:

Area: ___________ Floor: __________ Room: __________

Location: ___________________________________________

Electrical Cutoff:

Area: ___________ Floor: __________ Room: __________

Location: ___________________________________________



Hostage Negotiation Study Qquestions:

A. List the three elements of the Stockholm Syndrome.

Hostage negative feelings toward the Police.

Hostage positive feelings toward the Hostage Taker.

Hostage Taker positive feelings toward Hostages.

B. List two personality disorders which have been associated with hostage-taking.

Inadequate Personality

Anti-Social Personality

C. List two psychoses which have been associated with hostage-taking.

Schizophrenic Paranoid

Maniac Depressed

D. List five characteristics of the antisocial personality.

Egocentric

Irresponsible

Disloyal

Manipulative & Self-serving

No conscience, guilt, or remorse

Inability to maintain intimate relationship

Failure to accept social norms

Lack of anxiety

E. Name the psychosis which requires the most body space in a hostage situation.

Schizophrenic Paranoid

F. List four benefits of the delaying tactic.

1. Increases basic human needs.

(Biological needs --- Physical needs)

2. Reduces stress and anxiety.

3. Increases rationality.

4. Allows formation of the stockholm syndrome.

5. Increases the hostage's opportunities for escape.

(Though many think about it, few actually try)

6. Permits better decision making through the gathering of intelligence.

7. Allows formation of negotiator - subject rapport.

8. Subject's expectations are reduced.

G. Two people are generally credited with the founding of hostage negotiation techniques, list them:

Harvey Schlossbery ----- Frank Bolz

H. List five reasons for not exchanging hostages.

1. May increase the willingness to kill.

(Especially if the one exchanged is a police officer)

2. Will increase the tension level.

3. Bonding (Stockholm Syndrome) will be destroyed.

4. May be a ploy of H.T. to accomplish something else.

5. Could be an audience for suicide.

(Family member, etc.)

I. List six considerations when going face-to-face with hostage-takers. (Not going face to face you are limited to what you hear with your ears --- however, it is more dangerous)

1. Adequate cover,

2. Timing,

3. Your anxiety level,

4. Know your retreat route,

5. Body armor,

6. Weapon,

7. Tactical backup,

8. Physical description,

9. Body space requirement,

10. Keep your hands out of your pockets,

11. Eye contact --- watch his eyes,

12. Only one subject (HT) at a time,

13. Do not go with a gun pointed at you,

14. Never turn your back,

15. Get a promise from the HT that he will not hurt you ...

J. List four possible courses of action in a hostage situation.

1. Assault

2. Sniper - sharpshooter

3. Chemical agents

4. Contain & demand surrender

Contain / Isolate / Evaluate / Negotiate

K. List two demands which are generally considered non-negotiable.

1. Weapons --- 2. Exchange of hostages

L. Explain how food can be used to induce the Stockholm Syndrome.

Sending in fool (especially in bulk) can increase the interaction between the Hostage and the Hostage Taker.

M. List three problem areas associated with a mobile hostage situation.

Loss of: --- Command --- Communication --- Control

N. Stress can effect the individual physically as well as psychologically. List four (4) physical manifestations of stress.

1. Ulcers,

2. Heart attacks,

3. High blood pressure,

4. Headaches,

5. Sleeplessness

O. List four reasons why the boss should not negotiate.

1. A loss of objectivity (politics, etc.)

2. He is in command of the entire situation.

3. Lose the stalling tactic --- has too much authority.

4. Different personality.

5. Lack of recent street experience.

Negotiators don't command --- Commanders don't negotiate.

P. Stress is not always bad.

True False

Q. Stress is not only in the mind; it is physical as well.

True False

R. Define "Crisis Intervention" according to the definition given in your textbook.

The immediate and timely intrusion into a person's life at that time in his or her life when the stress that he or she is experiencing is too great to be handled and managed through usual coping mechanisms.

(The immediate intrusion into a person's life crisis in order to help solve the problem)

S. How is Hostage Negotiations different from Mediation?

A hostage negotiator is not neutral --- A Mediator is neutral.

T. Define conflict according to your textbook.

A particular interaction within or between parties which arises when the perceived or actual differences between the parties are seen as relevant to an existing or contemplated event.

The interaction between parties of different viewpoints.

U. How is crisis intervention related to hostage negotiations?

Hostage negotiations is a crisis due to the stress.

V. Describe how stress is related to the development of a crisis.

When stress become unbearable or unmanageable it becomes a crisis.

W. Why is it important for hostage negotiators to understand marriage and family crises?

Many marriage and family crises results in a hostage situation.

X. Are all persons who attempt suicide crazy? --- Ans. - No

Y. What is "Meta Pain?" --- Ans. - The pain of feeling pain.


Why Do People Take Hostages?

A. Mentally Disturbed: --- 52%

1. To right a perceived wrong.

2. Domestic dispute.

B. Criminals:

1. Escape.

2. Insure safety.

C. Prisoners --- To protest prison conditions.

D. Terrorists:

1. The Government cannot protect its citizens.

2. Media Coverage.

3. Hope Government becomes more restrictive.

4. Gain recognition for a group / cause.




      
      If You Are Not Saved, Nothing Else Matters


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